Precision Agriculture

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 34–44

Temporal and spatial changes of chlorophyll fluorescence as a basis for early and precise detection of leaf rust and powdery mildew infections in wheat leaves

Article

Abstract

Temporal and spatial changes in parameters of fast chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics (ground fluorescence, Fo and maximal fluorescence, Fm) and red/NIR reflectance were assessed with a Pulse-Amplitude-Modulated (PAM)-Imaging system on a daily basis over a period of 2 weeks following inoculation of wheat leaves with powdery mildew and leaf rust. The early detection of these infections by means of fluorescence imaging was possible 2–3 days before visual symptoms or significant changes in normalised-differenced-vegetation index (NDVI) became apparent. The initial infection of both fungi caused an increase in Fo and decrease in photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo). The appearance and development of fungal pustules was accompanied by reduction in Fo and Fm. This resulted mainly from lower absorption of fluorescence exciting light by the leaf mesophyll due to the shielding effect of fungal mycelium, and to lesser extent from the chlorophyll breakdown underneath pustules. Among the evaluated fluorescence parameters, Fv/Fo displayed the most pronounced response to both kinds of infection. Mildew infection influenced chlorophyll fluorescence neither in the direct vicinity of mycelium nor in the apparently healthy leaf regions. Rust infected plants, in contrast, displayed significantly reduced photochemical efficiency Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo in chlorotic tissue around pustules. The same, but less pronounced tendency was found in the apparently healthy regions of rust infected leaves in the last days of the experiment. Dark adaptation of leaves proved to be necessary for accurate detection of both pathogen infections by means of fluorescence imaging. Additional experiments are needed to estimate the potential of this technique for remote sensing under field conditions.

Keywords

Chlorophyll fluorescence NDVI Pathogen Discrimination 

References

  1. Babani, F., & Lichtenthaler, H. K. (1996). Light-induced and age-dependent development of chloroplasts in etiolated barley leaves as visualized by determination of photosynthetic pigments, CO2 assimilation rates and different kinds of chlorophyll fluorescence ratios. Journal of Plant Physiology, 148, 555–566.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, N. R., & Rosenqvist, E. (2004). Applications of chlorophyll fluorescence can improve production strategies: An examination of future possibilities. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55, 1607–1621. doi:10.1093/jxb/erh196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bassanezi, R. B., Amorim, L., Bergamin Filho, F., & Berger, R. D. (2002). Gas exchange and emission of chlorophyll fluorescence during the monocycle of rust, angular leaf spot and anthracnose on bean leaves as a function of their trophic characteristics. Journal of Phytopathology, 150, 37–47. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0434.2002.00714.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bodria, L., Fiala, M., Naldi, E., & Oberti, R. (2002). Chlorophyll fluorescence sensing for early detection of crop’s diseases symptoms. In Proceedings 2002 International ASAE Conference and XV CIGR World Congress/ASAE-CIGR. ASAE-CIGR, 2002, Paper No. 021114 (pp. 1–15).Google Scholar
  5. Carver, T. L. W., Ingerson, S. M., & Thomas, B. J. (1996). Influences of host surface features on development of Erysiphe graminis and Erysiphe pisi. In G. Kersteins (Ed.), Plant cuticles—an integrated functional approach (pp. 255–266). Oxford, UK: BIOS Scientific Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. Chaerle, L., Hagenbeek, D., De Bruyne, R., Valcke, R., & Van Der Straeten, D. (2004). Thermal and chlorophyll-fluorescence imaging distinguish plant–pathogen interactions at an early stage. Plant and Cell Physiology, 45(7), 887–896. doi:10.1093/pcp/pch097.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gitelson, A. A., Buschmann, C., & Lichtenthaler, H. K. (1998). Leaf chlorophyll fluorescence corrected for re-absorption by means of absorption and reflectance measurements. Journal of Plant Physiology, 152, 283–296.Google Scholar
  8. Govindjee, (2004). Chlorophyll a fluorescence: A bit of basics and history. In G. C. Papageorgiou & Govindjee (Eds.), Chlorophyll fluorescence: A signature of photosynthesis (pp. 1–42). Dordrecht, NL: Springer.Google Scholar
  9. Franke, J., Menz, G., Oerke, E.-C., & Rascher, U. (2005). Comparison of multi- and hyperspectral imaging data of leaf rust infected wheat plants. In M. Owe & G. D’Urso (Eds.), Remote sensing for agriculture, ecosystems, and hydrology VII: Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 5978(50) (pp. 1–11).Google Scholar
  10. Lichtenthaler, H. K., & Babani, F. (2004). Light adaptation and senescence of the photosynthetic apparatus. Changes in pigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and photosynthetic activity. In G. C. Papageorgiou & Govindjee (Eds.), Chlorophyll fluorescence: A signature of photosynthesis (pp. 713–736). Dordrecht, NL: Springer.Google Scholar
  11. Lichtenthaler, H. K., Buschmann, C., & Knapp, M. (2005). How to correctly determine the different chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and the chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio RFd of leaves with the PAM fluorometer. Photosynthetica, 43, 379–393. doi:10.1007/s11099-005-0062-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lichtenthaler, H. K., & Rinderle, U. (1988). The role of chlorophyll-fluorescence in the detection of stress conditions in plants. CRC Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 19, 29–85.Google Scholar
  13. Limbrunner, B., & Maidl, F.-X. (2007). Non-contact measurement of the actual nitrogen status of winter wheat canopies by laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. In J. V. Stafford (Ed.), Precision agriculture ‘07: Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Precision Agriculture (pp. 173–179). Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  14. Lorenzen, B., & Jensen, A. (1989). Changes in leaf spectral properties induced in barley by cereal powdery mildew. Remote Sensing of Environment, 27, 201–209. doi:10.1016/0034-4257(89)90018-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Moll, S., Serrano, P., & Boyle, C. (1995). In vivo chlorophyll fluorescence in rust-infected bean plants. Angewandte Botanik, 69, 163–168.Google Scholar
  16. Nicolas, H. (2004). Using remote sensing to determine of the date of a fungicide application on winter wheat. Crop Protection, 23, 853–863. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2004.01.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Scholes, J. D., & Farrar, J. F. (1986). Increased rates of photosynthesis in localised regions of a barley leaf infected with brown rust. New Phytologist, 104, 601–612. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1986.tb00660.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Scholes, J. D., & Rolfe, S. A. (1996). Photosynthesis in localised regions of oat leaves infected with crown rust (Puccinia coronata): Quantitative imaging of chlorophyll fluorescence. Planta, 199, 573–582. doi:10.1007/BF00195189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tartachnyk, I., Rademacher, I., & Kühbauch, W. (2006). Distinguishing nitrogen deficiency and fungal infection of winter wheat by laser-induced fluorescence. Precision Agriculture, 7, 281–293. doi:10.1007/s11119-006-9008-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. West, J. S., Bravo, C., Oberti, R., Lemaire, D., Moshou, D., & McCartney, H. A. (2003). The potential of optical canopy measurement for targeted control of field crop diseases. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 41, 593–614. doi:10.1146/annurev.phyto.41.121702.103726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Zhang, L., & Dickinson, M. (2001). Fluorescence from rust fungi: A simple and effective method to monitor the dynamics of fungal growth in planta. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 59, 137–141. doi:10.1006/pmpp.2001.0349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Zillmann, E., Graef, S., Link, J., Batchelor, W. D., & Claupein, W. (2006). Assessment of cereal nitrogen requirements derived by optical on-the-go sensors on heterogeneous soils. Agronomy Journal, 98, 682–690. doi:10.2134/agronj2005.0253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES)-Horticultural ScienceUniversity of BonnBonnGermany

Personalised recommendations