Advertisement

Happy today, satisfied tomorrow: emotion—satisfaction dynamics in a multi-week transit user smartphone survey

  • Huyen T. K. Le
  • Andre L. CarrelEmail author
Article

Abstract

Travel well-being encompasses three dimensions: cognitive satisfaction judgments, positive emotions, and negative emotions. Most previous literature on transit users focused either on satisfaction or emotions, but not both, and generally relied on data from one day. This study explores the day-to-day dynamics of travel satisfaction and emotions using a panel data set collected over several weeks from transit users in San Francisco using a smartphone survey. First, we compared emotions and satisfaction experienced during travel to measurements from retrospective surveys conducted at the beginning and the end of the study. Average levels of negative emotions were lower on a daily basis than in retrospective surveys, and the latter align more with the highest reported levels of negative emotions. Second, our dynamic panel models show lagged effects of satisfaction and emotions from the previous day on daily satisfaction, suggesting that dissatisfaction and emotions experienced while riding transit may carry over to the following day, with the effects of satisfaction and emotions having opposite signs. Third, when comparing retrospective emotions for transit travel and car travel, we found that car travel evokes higher positive emotions and lower negative emotions; however car trips are also more frustrating and stressful. Our study provides evidence for the influence of emotions on satisfaction, and advances the survey methods literature on measuring satisfaction in real-time and retrospectively. It also illustrates the need to enhance satisfaction and subjective well-being of transit riders, who are often found to be the least satisfied among all transportation users.

Keywords

Public transportation Service quality Peak-end rule Mood Affect Cognition Critical incident Customer satisfaction 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We wish to thank the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, the San Francisco County Transportation Authority, the National Science Foundation, the University of California, and the Ohio State University for generously supporting the data collection and the work presented in this paper. We also thank Wen You from Virginia Tech for the helpful discussions regarding methods, as well as the study participants for their commitment. This research was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of the University of California at Berkeley and the Ohio State University.

Author Contributions

The authors confirm contribution to the paper as follows: HTKL: study conception and design, analysis and interpretation of results, manuscript preparation. ALC: study conception and design, data collection, analysis and interpretation of results, manuscript preparation. Both authors reviewed the results and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abou-Zeid, M., Ben-Akiva, M.: A model of travel happiness and mode switching. In: Choice Modelling: The State-of-the-Art and the State-of-Practice: Proceedings from the Inaugural International Choice Modelling Conference, pp. 289–305. Emerald Group Publishing Limited (2010)Google Scholar
  2. Abou-Zeid, M., Ben-Akiva, M.: Travel mode switching: comparison of findings from two public transportation experiments. Transp. Policy 24, 48–59 (2012)Google Scholar
  3. Bailey, N., Doyle, T.P., Ogunbekun, T., Zhao, J.: A ride to remember: experienced vs. remembered emotion on public transit. In: 95th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC (2016)Google Scholar
  4. Baltagi, B.: Econometric Analysis of Panel Data. Wiley, London (2008)Google Scholar
  5. Bollen, K.A.: Structural Equations with Latent Variables. Wiley, London (1989)Google Scholar
  6. Carrel, A.L., Sengupta, R., Walker, J.L.: The San Francisco travel quality study: tracking trials and tribulations of a transit taker. Transportation 44(4), 643–679 (2017)Google Scholar
  7. Csikszentmihalyi, M., Larson, R., Prescott, S.: The ecology of adolescent activity and experience. J. Youth Adolesc. 6(3), 281–294 (1977)Google Scholar
  8. De Lima, I.V., Abou-Zeid, M., Kutadinata, R., Navidi, Z., Winter, S., Zhao, F., Ben-Akiva, M.: Dynamic modeling of activity happiness: an investigation of the intra-activity hedonic treadmill. In: Quality of Life and Daily Travel, pp. 95–118. Springer (2018)Google Scholar
  9. De Vos, J.: Satisfaction-induced travel behaviour. Transp. Res. Part F Traffic Psychol. Behav. 63, 12–21 (2019)Google Scholar
  10. De Vos, J., Schwanen, T., Van Acker, V., Witlox, F.: Travel and subjective well-being: a focus on findings, methods and future research needs. Transp. Rev. 33(4), 421–442 (2013)Google Scholar
  11. Diener, E., Emmons, R.A., Larsen, R.J., Griffin, S.: The satisfaction with life scale. J. Personal. Assess. 49(1), 71–75 (1985)Google Scholar
  12. Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D.-W., Oishi, S., Biswas-Diener, R.: New well-being measures: short scales to assess flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Soc. Indic. Res. 97(2), 143–156 (2010)Google Scholar
  13. Ellaway, A., Macintyre, S., Hiscock, R., Kearns, A.: In the driving seat: psychosocial benefits from private motor vehicle transport compared to public transport. Transp. Res. Part F Traffic Psychol. Behav. 6(3), 217–231 (2003)Google Scholar
  14. Ettema, D., Gärling, T., Eriksson, L., Friman, M., Olsson, L.E., Fujii, S.: Satisfaction with travel and subjective well-being: development and test of a measurement tool. Transp. Res. Part F Traffic Psychol. Behav. 14(3), 167–175 (2011)Google Scholar
  15. Ettema, D., Friman, M., Gärling, T., Olsson, L.E.: Travel mode use, travel mode shift and subjective well-being: overview of theories, empirical findings and policy implications. In: Mobility, Sociability and Well-Being of Urban Living, pp. 129–150. Springer (2016)Google Scholar
  16. Ettema, D., Friman, M., Olsson, L.E., Gärling, T.: Season and weather effects on travel-related mood and travel satisfaction. Front. Psychol. 8, 140 (2017)Google Scholar
  17. Evans, G.W., Carrère, S.: Traffic congestion, perceived control, and psychophysiological stress among urban bus drivers. J. Appl. Psychol. 76(5), 658 (1991)Google Scholar
  18. Evans, G.W., Wener, R.E.: Rail commuting duration and passenger stress. Health Psychol. 25(3), 408 (2006)Google Scholar
  19. Forgas, J.P.: Mood and judgment: the affect infusion model (aim). Psychol. Bull. 117(1), 39 (1995)Google Scholar
  20. Frederick, S., Loewenstein, G.: Hedonic adaptation. In: Kahneman, D., Diener, N., Schwarz, N. (eds.) Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology, pp. 302–329. Russell Sage, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  21. Frijda, N.H.: Mood. In: Sander, D., Scherer, K.R. (eds.) The Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences, pp. 258–259. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2009)Google Scholar
  22. Friman, M.: The structure of affective reactions to critical incidents. J. Econ. Psychol. 25(3), 331–353 (2004)Google Scholar
  23. Friman, M., Gärling, T., Ettema, D., Olsson, L.E.: How does travel affect emotional well-being and life satisfaction? Transp. Res. Part A Policy Pract. 106, 170–180 (2017a)Google Scholar
  24. Friman, M., Olsson, L.E., Ståhl, M., Ettema, D., Gärling, T.: Travel and residual emotional well-being. Transp. Res. Part F Traffic Psychol. Behav. 49, 159–176 (2017b)Google Scholar
  25. Gardner, B., Abraham, C.: What drives car use? A grounded theory analysis of commuters’ reasons for driving. Transp. Res. Part F Traffic Psychol. Behav. 10(3), 187–200 (2007)Google Scholar
  26. Gärling, T.: Travel and feelings. In: Friman, M., Ettema, D., Olsson, L.E. (eds.) Quality of Life and Daily Travel, pp. 41–56. Springer, Cham (2018)Google Scholar
  27. Gatersleben, B., Uzzell, D.: Affective appraisals of the daily commute: comparing perceptions of drivers, cyclists, walkers, and users of public transport. Environ. Behav. 39(3), 416–431 (2007)Google Scholar
  28. Glasgow, T.E., Geller, E.S., Le, H.T.K., Hankey, S.: Travel mood scale: development and validation of a survey to measure mood during transportation. Transp. Res. Part F Traffic Psychol. Behav. 59, 318–329 (2018)Google Scholar
  29. Homburg, C., Koschate, N., Hoyer, W.D.: The role of cognition and affect in the formation of customer satisfaction: a dynamic perspective. J. Mark. 70(3), 21–31 (2006)Google Scholar
  30. Kahneman, D., Krueger, A.B.: Developments in the measurement of subjective well-being. J. Econ. Perspect. 20(1), 3–24 (2006)Google Scholar
  31. Kahneman, D., Fredrickson, B.L., Schreiber, C.A., Redelmeier, D.A.: When more pain is preferred to less: adding a better end. Psychol. Sci. 4(6), 401–405 (1993)Google Scholar
  32. Kahneman, D., Wakker, P.P., Sarin, R.: Back to Bentham? Explorations of experienced utility. Q. J. Econ. 112(2), 375–406 (1997)Google Scholar
  33. Kahneman, D., Krueger, A.B., Schkade, D.A., Schwarz, N., Stone, A.A.: A survey method for characterizing daily life experience: the day reconstruction method. Science 306(5702), 1776–1780 (2004)Google Scholar
  34. Lancée, S., Veenhoven, R., Burger, M.: Mood during commute in the Netherlands: what way of travel feels best for what kind of people? Transp. Res. Part A Policy Pract. 104, 195–208 (2017)Google Scholar
  35. Le, H.T.K., Li, M., Carrel, A.L.: Linking Satisfaction to behavior: can (dis)satisfaction predict transit user attrition over time? In: Transportation Research Board 98th Annual Meeting (2019)Google Scholar
  36. Mano, H., Oliver, R.L.: Assessing the dimensionality and structure of the consumption experience: evaluation, feeling, and satisfaction. J. Consum. Res. 20(3), 451–466 (1993)Google Scholar
  37. Mokhtarian, P.L.: Subjective well-being and travel: retrospect and prospect. Transportation 1–21 (2018)Google Scholar
  38. Morris, E.A., Guerra, E.: Are we there yet? Trip duration and mood during travel. Transp. Res. Part F Traffic Psychol. Behav. 33, 38–47 (2015a)Google Scholar
  39. Morris, E.A., Guerra, E.: Mood and mode: does how we travel affect how we feel? Transportation 42(1), 25–43 (2015b)Google Scholar
  40. Nickell, S.: Biases in dynamic models with fixed effects. Econom. J. Econom. Soc. 49, 1417–1426 (1981)Google Scholar
  41. Nordbakke, S., Schwanen, T.: Well-being and mobility: a theoretical framework and literature review focusing on older people. Mobilities 9(1), 104–129 (2014)Google Scholar
  42. Novaco, R.W., Stokols, D., Milanesi, L.: Objective and subjective dimensions of travel impedance as determinants of commuting stress. Am. J. Community Psychol. 18(2), 231–257 (1990)Google Scholar
  43. Oliver, R.L.: A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. J. Mark. Res. 17(4), 460–469 (1980)Google Scholar
  44. Oliver, R.L.: Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer. Routledge, London (2014)Google Scholar
  45. Richins, M.L.: Measuring emotions in the consumption experience. J. Consum. Res. 24(2), 127–146 (1997)Google Scholar
  46. Rufín, R., Medina, C., Rey, M.: Adjusted expectations, satisfaction and loyalty development. Serv. Ind. J. 32(14), 2185–2202 (2012)Google Scholar
  47. Russell, J.A.: A circumplex model of affect. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 39(6), 1161 (1980)Google Scholar
  48. Russell, J.A.: Emotion in human consciousness is built on core affect. J. Conscious. Stud. 12(8–9), 26–42 (2005)Google Scholar
  49. Russell, J.A., Barrett, L.F.: Core affect, prototypical emotional episodes, and other things called emotion: dissecting the elephant. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 76(5), 805 (1999)Google Scholar
  50. Schwarz, N., Kahneman, D., Xu, J., Belli, R., Stafford, F., Alwin, D.: Global and episodic reports of hedonic experience. In: Belli, R.F., Alwin, D.F. (eds.) Calendar and Time Diary Methods in Life Course Research, pp. 157–174. Sage, Thousand Oaks (2009)Google Scholar
  51. Singleton, P.A.: Validating the satisfaction with travel scale as a measure of hedonic subjective well-being for commuting in a us city. Transp. Res. part F Traffic Psychol. Behav. 60, 399–414 (2019)Google Scholar
  52. Smith, O.: Commute well-being differences by mode: evidence from Portland, Oregon, USA. J. Transp. Health 4, 246–254 (2017)Google Scholar
  53. Sparks, J., Ledgerwood, A.: When good is stickier than bad: understanding gain/loss asymmetries in sequential framing effects. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 146(8), 1086 (2017)Google Scholar
  54. Sposato, R.G., Röderer, K., Cervinka, R.: The influence of control and related variables on commuting stress. Transp. Res. Part F Traffic Psychol. Behav. 15(5), 581–587 (2012)Google Scholar
  55. St-Louis, E., Manaugh, K., van Lierop, D., El-Geneidy, A.: The happy commuter: a comparison of commuter satisfaction across modes. Transp. Res. Part F Traffic Psychol. Behav. 26, 160–170 (2014)Google Scholar
  56. Steg, L.: Car use: lust and must. Instrumental, symbolic and affective motives for car use. Transp. Res. Part A Policy Pract. 39(2–3), 147–162 (2005)Google Scholar
  57. Thayer, R.E.: The Origin of Everyday Moods: Managing Energy, Tension, and Stress. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1997)Google Scholar
  58. van Lierop, D., Badami, M.G., El-Geneidy, A.M.: What influences satisfaction and loyalty in public transport? A review of the literature. Transp. Rev. 38(1), 52–72 (2018)Google Scholar
  59. Västfjäll, D., Friman, M., Gärling, T., Kleiner, M.: The measurement of core affect: a swedish self-report measure derived from the affect circumplex. Scand. J. Psychol. 43(1), 19–31 (2002)Google Scholar
  60. Verduyn, P., Lavrijsen, S.: Which emotions last longest and why: the role of event importance and rumination. Motiv. Emot. 39(1), 119–127 (2015)Google Scholar
  61. Watson, D., Clark, L.A., Tellegen, A.: Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 54(6), 1063 (1988)Google Scholar
  62. Westbrook, R.A., Oliver, R.L.: The dimensionality of consumption emotion patterns and consumer satisfaction. J. Consum. Res. 18(1), 84–91 (1991)Google Scholar
  63. Yik, M., Russell, J.A., Steiger, J.H.: A 12-point circumplex structure of core affect. Emotion 11(4), 705 (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil, Environmental and Geodetic EngineeringThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations