Tradable permit schemes for managing morning commute with carpool under parking space constraint

  • Ling-Ling Xiao
  • Tian-Liang LiuEmail author
  • Hai-Jun Huang


This paper proposes two tradable parking permit schemes for managing the morning commute with three alternative modes, i.e., transit, driving alone and carpool, under the parking space constraint at destination. The commuting equilibrium and system-optimal distributions of parking permits are further investigated in a many-to-one multi-modal network setting. It is found that the prices of parking permits, regardless of whether the trip is completed as a carpool or not, decrease with the parking supply, and the price for a solo driver to pay is larger than that a carpooler should pay. Furthermore, the tradable undifferentiated parking permit scheme with a uniform price is more efficient than the tradable differentiated parking permit scheme for solo-driving and carpool vehicles, but the former significantly changes the permit-holding order of solo drivers and carpoolers when the parking supply is relatively low.


Morning commute Bottleneck model Tradable parking permits Carpool 



The research described in this paper was jointly supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (71501012, 71771007), the Beijing Social Science Foundation (16GLC054) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities. On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Authors’ contribution

L-LX: Literature Search and Review, Modeling and Analysis, Manuscript Writing. T-LL: Content Planning and Analysis, Literature Review, Manuscript Editing. H-JH: Content Planning, Manuscript Editing.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Economics and ManagementBeijing Jiaotong UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.MoE Key Laboratory of Complex System Analysis and Management Decision, School of Economics and ManagementBeihang UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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