Home charge timing choice behaviors of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle users under a dynamic electricity pricing scheme
- 101 Downloads
This paper examines choice behaviors pertaining to the time at which users of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with 24 km electric range charge their vehicles after arriving at home under a dynamic electricity pricing scheme. The following mutually exclusive alternatives are presented: no charging, charging immediately after arriving at home, charging at the cheapest time, and charging at other times. Four versions of a mixed logit model with unobserved heterogeneity are applied to panel data on vehicle usage from 9 households with 2226 observations in Toyota City. Estimation results suggest that users’ willingness to charge become stronger with increasing driving distance when the driving distance is less than the electric range of 24 km, while tend not to charge when the driving distance is longer than the electric range. Users who return home at the cheapest time or during the day are willing to charge immediately after arriving at home. Electricity prices significantly affect choices to charge at the cheapest time for all users, and stay-at-home mother users and users returning home in the evening tend to charge at the cheapest time. Users returning home in the evening also tend to charge at other times, and being accustomed to charge at a certain time increases the probability of charging at other times. In addition, considerable variations are found across individuals with respect to their preferences for charge timing alternatives as well as for electricity prices.
KeywordsPlug-in hybrid electric vehicle Dynamic electricity pricing scheme Home charge timing Choice behavior Mixed logit model Unobserved heterogeneity
This paper presents results obtained through research activities conducted in collaboration with Toyota Motor Corporation. This study was also supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 25289164) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, as well as Foundation of Xinjiang University (No. BS160252). The authors also would like to thank Mr. Jun Koreishi and the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions to improve the quality of this paper.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Ben-Akiva, M., Bolduc, D.: Multinomial probit with a logit kernel and a general parametric specification of the covariance structure. Working Paper, Department of Civil Engineering, MIT (1996)Google Scholar
- Biviji, M., Uckun, C., Bassett, G., Wang, J.: Patterns of electric vehicle charging with time of use rates: case studies in California and Portland. In: Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference, pp. 1–5. IEEE. (2014)Google Scholar
- Daina, N., Polak, J. W., Sivakumar, A.: Patent and latent predictors of electric vehicle charging behavior. In: Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2502, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2015, pp. 116–123Google Scholar
- Geweke, J.: Monte Carlo simulation and numerical integration. Staff Report No. 192, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis (1995)Google Scholar
- ECOtality: How do PEV owners respond to time-of-use rates while charging vehicles? https://avt.inl.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/EVProj/125348-714937.pev-driver.pdf (2013)
- Hadley, S.W: Impact of plug-in hybrid vehicles on the electric grid. ORNL/TM-2006/554. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (2006)Google Scholar
- Jabeen, F., Olaru, D., Smith, B., Braunl, T., Speidel, S.: Electric vehicle battery charging behaviour: findings from a driver survey. In: Australasian Transport Research Forum (ATRF), 36th, 2013, Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
- Nunnaly, J.: Psychometric theory. McGraw-Hill, New York (1978)Google Scholar
- Revelt, D., Train, K.: Customer-specific taste parameters and Mixed Logit: households’ choice of electricity supplier. Department of Economics, UCB (2000)Google Scholar
- Shao, S., Pipattanasomporn, M., Rahman, S.: Challenges of PHEV penetration to the residential distribution network. In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2009. PES’09. IEEE, pp. 1–8. IEEE (2009)Google Scholar
- Toyota City Low-carbon Society Verification Project (Smart Melit). http://jscp.nepc.or.jp/en/toyota/index.shtml
- Train, K.: Halton sequences for mixed logit. Department of Economics, UCB (2000)Google Scholar
- Zoepf, S., MacKenzie, D., Keith, D., Chernicoff, W.: Charging choices and fuel displacement in a large-Scale demonstration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. In: Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2385, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2013, pp. 1–10Google Scholar