Substitution and complementarity patterns between traditional transport means and car sharing: a person and trip level analysis

  • Riccardo CeccatoEmail author
  • Marco Diana


Car sharing is a new transport mode which combines characteristics of private and collective traditional transport means. Understanding the relationship of this mode with existing ones is very important for policy makers to create an efficient transport system and to properly address public resources. This paper aims to analyze the interaction of car sharing with the existing offer of competing modes, using data from a specific travel survey administered in the city of Turin, where both free-floating and one-way station based car sharing services are offered. All transport modes operating in the study area were considered. Bivariate models were estimated to study the propensity to have a car sharing subscription and the substitution patterns between different travel means for a representative random sample of trips taken by the Turin population. Results show that the current car sharing system is perceived as efficient and useful; car sharing members are young males, living in high-income and low-size household with, in particular, a high number of workers and low number of available cars; moreover, the presence of private parking near home has a strong negative impact. There is evidence that car sharing can substitute car driving trips, while the evidence that the same can happen with biking and walking trips is not supported by models but only marginally seen from descriptive statistics. There is also some complementarity between car sharing and public transport and a strong complementarity between car sharing and bike sharing, so that policy makers should jointly promote those modes.


Car sharing Sustainability Public transport Multimodality Car ownership 



This research has been partly financed through a “Ricerca dei Talenti” Grant from Fondazione CRT.

Author contributions

Riccardo Ceccato analysed the data, performed the literature review and wrote the manuscript. Marco Diana designed the survey and the analysis method, interpreted the results and contributed in writing the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Both authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure EngineeringPolitecnico di TorinoTurinItaly

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