, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 537–562 | Cite as

Analysis of social networks, social interactions, and out-of-home leisure activity generation: Evidence from Japan

  • Giancarlos Troncoso ParadyEmail author
  • Genki Katayama
  • Hiromu Yamazaki
  • Tatsuki Yamanami
  • Kiyoshi Takami
  • Noboru Harata


This article analyses the connection between social networks, social interactions and out-of-home leisure activity generation in the context of Japanese society. A multilevel structural equation modelling approach is used to account for the hierarchical structure of the data. At the ego-alter (self-other) level, results suggest the existence of a complementary effect between face to face interaction and ICT contact propensity that becomes a substitution effect given increasing distance between egos and alters. Furthermore, a mediating effect by face to face interaction between ICT contact propensity and distance was observed. At the ego (self) level, urbanization level, income, network size and club membership were found to have a direct positive effect on leisure propensity and indirectly on ICT contact propensity, while an extraverted personality was positively associated with higher ICT contact propensity.


Social networks Leisure activity generation Social interaction Information and communication technologies Multilevel modelling 



This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant No. 23246091 and The University of Tokyo’s Excellent Graduate Schools (EGS) Support Fund for Young Researchers Grant No. T10027. All spatial data used for the analysis presented in this article were provided by the Center for Spatial Information Science of The University of Tokyo. CSIS joint research No. 479.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of EngineeringThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Socio-Cultural Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier SciencesThe University of TokyoKashiwa-shiJapan

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