, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 545–572 | Cite as

The multi-objective network design problem using minimizing externalities as objectives: comparison of a genetic algorithm and simulated annealing framework

  • Bastiaan PosselEmail author
  • Luc J. J. Wismans
  • Eric C. Van Berkum
  • Michiel C. J. Bliemer


Incorporation of externalities in the Multi-Objective Network Design Problem (MO NDP) as objectives is an important step in designing sustainable networks. In this research the problem is defined as a bi-level optimization problem in which minimizing externalities are the objectives and link types which are associated with certain link characteristics are the discrete decision variables. Two distinct solution approaches for this multi-objective optimization problem are compared. The first heuristic is the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) and the second heuristic is the dominance based multi objective simulated annealing (DBMO-SA). Both heuristics have been applied on a small hypothetical test network as well as a realistic case of the city of Almelo in the Netherlands. The results show that both heuristics are capable of solving the MO NDP. However, the NSGA-II outperforms DBMO-SA, because it is more efficient in finding more non-dominated optimal solutions within the same computation time and maximum number of assessed solutions.


Multi-objective network design problem Externalities Genetic algorithm Simulated annealing Accessibility Traffic safety Emission 



The authors are grateful for the financial contributions of Goudappel Coffeng and the ATMA (Advanced Traffic MAnagement) and Pay-as-you-drive projects of the TRANSUMO program. TRANSUMO (TRANsition SUstainable MObility) is a Dutch platform for companies, governments and knowledge institutes that cooperate in the development of knowledge with regard to sustainable mobility.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bastiaan Possel
    • 1
    Email author
  • Luc J. J. Wismans
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eric C. Van Berkum
    • 2
  • Michiel C. J. Bliemer
    • 3
  1. 1.Goudappel CoffengDeventerThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Centre for Transport StudiesUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Institute of Transport and Logistics StudiesThe University of Sydney Business SchoolSydneyAustralia

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