, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 731–752 | Cite as

Joint road toll pricing and capacity development in discrete transport network design problem

  • Meng Xu
  • Guangmin Wang
  • Susan Grant-Muller
  • Ziyou Gao


The paper demonstrates a method to determine road network improvements that also involve the use of a road toll charge, taking the perspective of the government or authority. A general discrete network design problem with a road toll pricing scheme, to minimize the total travel time under a budget constraint, is proposed. This approach is taken in order to determine the appropriate level of road toll pricing whilst simultaneously addressing the need for capacity. The proposed approach is formulated as a bi-level programming problem. The optimal road capacity improvement and toll level scheme is investigated with respect to the available budget levels and toll revenues.


Toll pricing Road development Discrete network design problem (DNDP) Bilevel programming Relaxation algorithm 



The work described in this paper was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (71361130016, 71422010, 71471167), the National Basic Research Program of China (2012CB725401), and the EU Marie Curie IIF (MOPED, 300674). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the views of the funding sources. Any remaining errors or shortcomings are our own. Any views or conclusions expressed in this paper do not represent those of funding sources.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meng Xu
    • 1
  • Guangmin Wang
    • 2
  • Susan Grant-Muller
    • 3
  • Ziyou Gao
    • 4
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Rail Traffic Control and SafetyBeijing Jiaotong UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of Economics and ManagementChina University of GeosciencesWuhanChina
  3. 3.Institute for Transport StudiesUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK
  4. 4.School of Traffic and TransportationBeijing Jiaotong UniversityBeijingChina

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