, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 181–198 | Cite as

Immigrant status and commute distance: an exploratory study based on the greater Golden Horseshoe

  • K. Bruce Newbold
  • Darren M. Scott
  • Charles Burke


With 8.76 million residents in 2011, the population of Southern Ontario’s Greater Golden Horseshoe (GGH) has grown dramatically over the past decades, driven by net domestic in-migration and immigration. Corresponding to its growth in population, commuting distances and times within the region have grown as well. Yet, despite the number of immigrants that the region attracts on a yearly basis, there is comparatively little information on commute distances. Consequently, this paper examines commuting distance amongst immigrants in the GGH. Specifically, it evaluates commute distance by immigrant status (immigrants and native born), along with how commute distance differs by arrival cohort and ethnic and racial population groups. Results indicate that commute distance increases with increasing duration of residence, with differences by race and ethnicity.


Immigrants Commuting Toronto Auto use 



We would like to thank the editor (Prof. Mark Horner), the anonymous reviewers for providing insightful comments to improve our paper. The research was supported financially by a Grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (410-2009-1402).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Bruce Newbold
    • 1
  • Darren M. Scott
    • 1
  • Charles Burke
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Geography & Earth SciencesMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

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