, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 755–771

Incorporating crowding into the San Francisco activity-based travel model


DOI: 10.1007/s11116-012-9405-x

Cite this article as:
Zorn, L., Sall, E. & Wu, D. Transportation (2012) 39: 755. doi:10.1007/s11116-012-9405-x


Information produced by travel demand models plays a large role decision making in many metropolitan areas, and San Francisco is no exception. Being a transit first city, one of the most common uses for San Francisco’s travel model SF-CHAMP is to analyze transit demand under various circumstances. SF-CHAMP v 4.1 (Harold) is able to capture the effects of several aspects of transit provision including headways, stop placement, and travel time. However, unlike how auto level of service in a user equilibrium traffic assignment is responsive to roadway capacity, SF-CHAMP Harold is unable to capture any benefit related to capacity expansion, crowding’s effect on travel time nor or any of the real-life true capacity limitations. The failure to represent these elements of transit travel has led to significant discrepancies between model estimates and actual ridership. Additionally it does not allow decision-makers to test the effects of policies or investments that increase the capacity of a given transit service. This paper presents the framework adopted into a more recent version of SF-CHAMP (Fury) to represent transit capacity and crowding within the constraints of our current modeling software.


Transportation planning Transit planning Activity-based travel models Transit crowding 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.San Francisco County Transportation AuthoritySan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Cambridge SystematicsCambridgeUSA

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