, 38:933 | Cite as

Modeling the choice continuum: an integrated model of residential location, auto ownership, bicycle ownership, and commute tour mode choice decisions

  • Abdul Rawoof Pinjari
  • Ram M. Pendyala
  • Chandra R. Bhat
  • Paul A. Waddell


The integrated modeling of land use and transportation choices involves analyzing a continuum of choices that characterize people’s lifestyles across temporal scales. This includes long-term choices such as residential and work location choices that affect land-use, medium-term choices such as vehicle ownership, and short-term choices such as travel mode choice that affect travel demand. Prior research in this area has been limited by the complexities associated with the development of integrated model systems that combine the long-, medium- and short-term choices into a unified analytical framework. This paper presents an integrated simultaneous multi-dimensional choice model of residential location, auto ownership, bicycle ownership, and commute tour mode choices using a mixed multidimensional choice modeling methodology. Model estimation results using the San Francisco Bay Area highlight a series of interdependencies among the multi-dimensional choice processes. The interdependencies include: (1) self-selection effects due to observed and unobserved factors, where households locate based on lifestyle and mobility preferences, (2) endogeneity effects, where any one choice dimension is not exogenous to another, but is endogenous to the system as a whole, (3) correlated error structures, where common unobserved factors significantly and simultaneously impact multiple choice dimensions, and (4) unobserved heterogeneity, where decision-makers show significant variation in sensitivity to explanatory variables due to unobserved factors. From a policy standpoint, to be able to forecast the “true” causal influence of activity-travel environment changes on residential location, auto/bicycle ownership, and commute mode choices, it is necessary to capture the above-identified interdependencies by jointly modeling the multiple choice dimensions in an integrated framework.


Multi-dimensional choice modeling Simultaneous equations model Tour mode choice Endogeneity Residential self-selection Built environment and travel behavior 



The authors appreciate the useful comments of four anonymous reviewers on an earlier manuscript.


  1. Abraham, J.E., Hunt, J.D.: Specification and estimation of nested logit model of home, workplaces, and commuter mode choices by multiple-worker households. Transp. Res. Rec. 1606, 17–24 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anas, A.: The estimation of multinomial logit models of joint location and travel mode choice from aggregated data. J. Reg. Sci. 21(2), 223–242 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anas, A.: Capitalization of urban travel improvements into residential and commercial real estate: simulations with a unified model of housing, travel mode and shopping choices. J. Reg. Sci. 35(3), 351–375 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anas, A., Duann, L.S.: Dynamic forecasting of travel demand, residential location, and land development: policy simulations with the Chicago area transportation/land-use analysis system. Pap. Reg. Sci. Assoc. 56, 38–58 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ben-Akiva, M., Bowman, J.L.: Integration of an activity-based model system and a residential location model. Urban Stud. 35(7), 1131–1153 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ben-Akiva, M., Lerman, S.R.: Discrete Choice Analysis: Theory and Application to Travel Demand. MIT Press Series in Transportation Studies. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA; London, England (1985)Google Scholar
  7. Ben-Akiva, M., Salomon, I.: The use of the lifestyle concept in travel demand models. Environ. Plan. A 15, 623–638 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhat, C.R., Guo, J.Y.: A comprehensive analysis of built environment characteristics on household residential choice and auto ownership levels. Transp. Res. 41B(5), 506–526 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, B.: Modal choice, location demand, and income. J. Urban Econ. 20, 128–139 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cao, X., Mokhtarian, P.L., Handy, S.L.: Examining the Impacts of Residential Self-selection on Travel Behavior: Methodologies and Empirical Findings. Research Report: UCD-ITS-RR-06-18, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis (2006)Google Scholar
  11. Desalvo, J.S., Huq, M.: Mode choice, commuting cost, and urban household behavior. J. Reg. Sci. 45, 493–517 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eliasson, J., Mattsson, L.: A model for integrated analysis of household location and travel choices. Transp. Res. 34A, 375–394 (2000)Google Scholar
  13. Frank, L., Bradley, M.A., Kavage, S., Chapman, J., Keith Lawton Consulting: Urban form, travel time, and cost relationships with tour complexity and mode choice. Transportation 35, 37–54 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lerman, S.R.: Location, housing, automobile ownership and mode to work: A joint choice model. Transp. Res. Rec. 610, 6–11 (1976)Google Scholar
  15. Leroy, S.F., Sonstelie, J.: Paradise lost and regained: transportation innovation, income and residential location. J. Urban Econ. 13, 67–89 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Maat, K., Timmermans, H.J.P.: Influence of the residential and work environment on car use in dual-earner households. Transp. Res. A 43, 654–664 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miller, E.J., Salvini, P.A.: The integrated land use, transportation environment (ILUTE) microsimulation modelling system: description and current status. In: Hensher, D.A. (ed.) Travel Behaviour Research: The leading edge, pp. 711–724. Pergamon Press, Amsterdam (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pinjari, A.R., Pendyala, R.M., Bhat, C.R., Waddel, P.A.: Modeling residential sorting effects to understand the impact of the built environment on commute mode choice. Transportation 34, 557–573 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Salon, D.: Cars and the City: An Investigation of Transportation and Residential Location Choices in New York City. Dissertation, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Davis (2006)Google Scholar
  20. Salvini, P.A., Miller, E.J.: ILUTE: an operational prototype of a comprehensive microsimulation model of urban systems. Networks and Spatial Economics 5(2), 217–234 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Strauch, D., Moeckel, R., Wegener, M., Gräfe, J., Mühlhans, H., Rindsfüser, G.: Linking transport and land use planning: the micoscopic dynamic simulation model ILUMASS. In: Atkinson, P.M., Foody, G.M., Darby, S.E., Wu, F. (eds.) Geodynamics, pp. 295–311. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2005)Google Scholar
  22. Vega, A., Reynolds-Feighan, A.: A methodological framework for the study of residential location and travel-to-work mode choice under central and suburban employment destination patterns. Transp. Res. A 43, 401–409 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Waddell, P.: Exogenous workplace choice in residential location models: is the assumption valid in a multinodal metropolis? Geogr. Anal. 25(1), 65–82 (1993a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Waddell, P.: A multinomial logit model of race and urban structure. Urban Geogr. 13(2), 127–141 (1993b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Waddell, P.: Towards a behavioral integration of land use and transportation modeling. In: Hensher, D. (ed.) Travel Behavior Research: The Leading Edge, pp. 65–95. Pergamon, New York (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Waddell, P.: UrbanSim: modeling urban development for land use, transportation, and environmental planning. J. Am. Plan. Assoc. 68, 297–314 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Waddell, P.: Accessibility and residential location: the interaction of workplace, housing tenure, residential mobility and location choices. In: Preston, J,, Pagliara, F,, Simmonds, D., (eds.) Modelling Residential Location Choice. Ashgate, Hampshire (2006)Google Scholar
  28. Waddell, P., Wang, L., Liu, X.: UrbanSim: an evolving planning support system for evolving communities. In: Brail, R. (ed.) Planning support systems for cities and regions, pp. 103–138. Lincoln Institute for Land Policy, Cambridge (2008)Google Scholar
  29. Wegener, M., Waddell, P., Salomon, I.: Sustainable Lifestyles? Microsimulation of household formation, housing choice and travel behaviour. In: Black, W., Nijkamp, P. (eds.) Social Change and Sustainable Transport. Indiana University Press, Bloomington (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdul Rawoof Pinjari
    • 1
  • Ram M. Pendyala
    • 2
  • Chandra R. Bhat
    • 3
  • Paul A. Waddell
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  2. 2.School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built EnvironmentArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  3. 3.Department of Civil, Architectural & Environmental EngineeringThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  4. 4.Department of City and Regional PlanningUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations