Transportation

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 153–168 | Cite as

Motivators and deterrents of bicycling: comparing influences on decisions to ride

  • Meghan Winters
  • Gavin Davidson
  • Diana Kao
  • Kay Teschke
Article

Abstract

In a survey of 1,402 current and potential cyclists in Metro Vancouver, 73 motivators and deterrents of cycling were evaluated. The top motivators, consistent among regular, frequent, occasional and potential cyclists, were: routes away from traffic noise and pollution; routes with beautiful scenery; and paths separated from traffic. In factor analysis, the 73 survey items were grouped into 15 factors. The following factors had the most influence on likelihood of cycling: safety; ease of cycling; weather conditions; route conditions; and interactions with motor vehicles. These results indicate the importance of the location and design of bicycle routes to promote cycling.

Keywords

Bicycle Survey Infrastructure Influence Non-motorized transport 

References

  1. Accent Marketing Research: The near market for cycling in London. Transport for London, London, England (2004)Google Scholar
  2. Antonakos, C.L.: Environmental and travel preferences of cyclists. Transp. Res. Rec. 1438, 25–33 (1994)Google Scholar
  3. Aultman-Hall, L., Hall, F.L.: Research design insights from a survey of urban bicycle commuters. Bicycle Ped. Res. 1998(1636), 21–28 (1998)Google Scholar
  4. Aultman-Hall, L., Hall, F.L., Baetz, B.B.: Analysis of bicycle commuter routes using Geographic Information Systems: implications for bicycle planning. Transport Res. Rec. 1578, 102–110 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cavill, N., Davis, A.: Cycling and health: What’s the evidence?. Cycling England, London, England (2007)Google Scholar
  6. Colman, R., Walker, S.: The Cost of Physical Inactivity in British Columbia. B.C. Ministry of Health Planning, GPI Atlantic (2004)Google Scholar
  7. City of Vancouver (2010) Cycling in Vancouver: Looking forward to 2010/2011. April 30, 2010. Available online at: http://cityofvan-as1.insinc.com/ibc/mp/md/open/c/317/1201/201005060900wv150en,002. Accessed May 6, 2010
  8. Demographia: World Urban Areas & Population Projections, 5th Comprehensive Edition. Belleville, Illinois (2009)Google Scholar
  9. Dill, J., Gliebe, J.: Understanding and Measuring Bicycle Behavior: A Focus on Travel Time and Route Choice, OCREC-RR-08-03, Center for Urban Studies/Center for Transportation Studies. Oregon Transportation Research and Education Consortium. Portland, Oregon (2008)Google Scholar
  10. Dora, C.: A different route to health: implications of transport policies. BMJ 318(7199), 1686–1689 (1999)Google Scholar
  11. Environment Canada (2009) Climate Normals. Available online at http://www.climate.weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/climate_normals/index_e.html. Accessed March 2, 2009
  12. FHWA: US Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration, FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation. Available online at http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/PED_BIKE/univcourse/swtoc.htm. Accessed March 1, 2008
  13. Gatersleben, B., Appleton, K.M.: Contemplating cycling to work: attitudes and perceptions in different stages of change. Transp. Res. Pol. Pract. 41(4), 302–312 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Giles-Corti, B., Donovan, R.J.: The relative influence of individual, social and physical environment determinants of physical activity. Soc. Sci. Med. 54(12), 1793–1812 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Go For Green (2004). National active transportation survey. Available online at http://www.goforgreen.ca/at/eng/PDF/National_AT_Survey_Report_2006.pdf. Accessed April 12, 2008
  16. Heath, G.W., Brownson, R.C., et al.: The effectiveness of urban design and land use and transport policies and practices to increase physical activity: a systematic review. J. Phys. Activ. Health 3(Suppl 1), S55–S76 (2006)Google Scholar
  17. Hunt, J.D., Abraham, J.E.: Influences on bicycle use. Transportation 34(4), 453–470 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Katzmarzyk, P.T.: The Canadian obesity epidemic: an historical perspective. Obes. Res. 10(7), 666–674 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Krizek, K.J.: Two approaches to valuing some of bicycle facilities’ presumed benefits. J. Am. Plann. Assoc. 72(3), 309–320 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Metro Vancouver (2006) Key Facts—Population-2006 Census. Available online at http://www.metrovancouver.org/about/statistics/Pages/KeyFacts.aspx . Accessed November 2, 2009
  21. Moritz, W.E.: Survey of North American bicycle commuters: design and aggregate results. Transp. Res. Rec. 1578, 91–101 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F.: The transtheoretical model of health behavior change. Am. J. Health Promot. 12(1), 38–48 (1997)Google Scholar
  23. Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F.: Stages of change and decisional balance for 12 problem behaviors. Health Psychol. 13(1), 39–46 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pucher, J., Buehler, R.: Cycling trends and policies in Canadian cities. World Transp. Pol. Pract. 11(1), 43–61 (2005)Google Scholar
  25. Pucher, J., Buehler, R.: Why Canadians cycle more than Americans: a comparative analysis of bicycling trends and policies. Transp. Pol. 13, 265–279 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pucher, J., Buehler, R.: Making cycling irresistible: lessons from the Netherlands, Denmark, and Germany. Transp. Rev. 28(4), 495–528 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pucher, J., Dijkstra, P.: Promoting safe walking and cycling to improve public health: lessons from the Netherlands and Germany. Am. J. Public Health 93(9), 1509–1516 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sallis, J.F., Frank, L.D., Saelens, B.E., Krafts, K.E.: Active transportation and physical activity: opportunities for collaboration on transportation and public health research. Transp. Res. Pol. Pract. 38(4), 249–268 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schneider, R.J., Dunbar, L.C., Toole, J.L., Fink, C.: Avoiding biased interpretation of bicycle surveys: comparing results from four distribution methods in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Transp. Res. Rec. 1982, 174–186 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sener, I.N. Eluru, N., Bhat, C.R.: An analysis of bicycle route choice preferences in Texas, U.S. Transp. 36(5), 511–539 (2009)Google Scholar
  31. Shannon, T., Giles-Corti, B., et al.: Active commuting in a university setting: assessing commuting habits and potential for modal change. Transp. Pol. 13(3), 240–253 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Statistics Canada (2006) Complete cumulative profile, including Income and earnings, and Shelter costs, Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions, Census Subdivisions and Dissemination Areas: Census of Canada, 2006 Data. Available online at: http://data.library.ubc.ca/java/jsp/database/production/detail.jsp?id=1057. Accessed May 2, 2008
  33. Gleave, S.D.: Cycling in London. Transport for London, London, England (2008)Google Scholar
  34. Stinson, M.A., Bhat, C.R.: Commuter bicyclist route choice—analysis using a stated preference survey. Transp. Res. Rec. 1828, 107–115 (2003)Google Scholar
  35. Stinson, M.A., Bhat, C.R.: Frequency of bicycle commuting Internet-based survey analysis. Transp. Res. Rec. 1878, 122–130 (2004)Google Scholar
  36. Su, J., Winters, M., Nunes, M., Brauer, M.: Designing a route planner to facilitate and promote cycling in Metro Vancouver, Canada. Transp. Res. Pol. Pract. 44, 495–505 (2010)Google Scholar
  37. Translink: Greater Vancouver Trip Diary Survey. Vancouver, Greater Vancouver Transportation Authority. Vancouver, British Columbia (2004)Google Scholar
  38. Troped, P.J., Saunders, R.P., et al.: Associations between self-reported and objective physical environmental factors and use of a community rail-trail. Prev. Med. 32(2), 191–200 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Walker, L., Tresidder, M., et al.: Fundamentals of Bicycle Boulevard Planning & Design. Initiative for Bicycle and Pedestrian Innovation, Center for Transportation Studies, Centre for Urban Studies. Portland State University, Portland, Oregon (2009)Google Scholar
  40. Winters, M., Friesen, M.C., Koehoorn, M., Teschke, K.: Utilitarian bicycling: a multilevel analysis of climate and personal influences. Am. J. Prev. Med. 32(1), 52–58 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Winters, M., Brauer, M., Setton, E.M., Teschke, K.: (Under review) Built environment influences on healthy transportation choices: bicycling versus driving. J. Urban HealthGoogle Scholar
  42. Winters, M., Teschke, K.: Route preferences among adults in the near market for cycling: findings of the cycling in cities study. Am. J. Health Promot. (in press)Google Scholar
  43. Winters, M., Teschke, K., Grant, M., Setton, E.M., Brauer, M.: How far out of the way will we travel? Built environment influences on route selection for bicycle and car travel. Transp. Res. Rec. (in press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meghan Winters
    • 1
  • Gavin Davidson
    • 2
  • Diana Kao
    • 3
  • Kay Teschke
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Population and Public HealthUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.TransLink (South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority)BurnabyCanada
  3. 3.London School of Hygiene & Tropical MedicineUniversity of LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations