, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 133–152 | Cite as

Planning and Evaluation of Passenger Ferry Service in Hong Kong

  • Avishai (Avi) CederEmail author


A predominant observation in Hong Kong is the continuous loss in ferry patronage. There are two main reasons for this: poor level-of-service and better competitors. New roads, bridges, and tunnels are serving the buses, and to some extent the railways; whereas the investment in ferry terminals is relatively at a lower level. On the one hand, there is no need to promote the ferries in a free market environment; but on the other hand, the ferries have the best safety record, can only relieve some traffic congestion and need water access that is one of the characteristics of Hong Kong. The goal of this paper is to design a planning approach combined with an evaluation procedure on how to make the best use of the existing water and pier resources in Hong Kong through the provision of commercially viable ferry services. The approach used covers the impact of future developments planning up to 2006 comprising all public transport modes in Hong Kong (heavy rail, metro, bus, and ferry). The planning tool is based on a newly developed multi-objective evaluation method in order to assess the ferry routes with scientific, practical, and simplified analyses for future use. This assessment is applied to the existing ferry routes and candidate routes and can also be carried out on an individual route basis or on a given set of routes. The objective functions set forth analytically in the evaluation method take into account the interests of the three participants: the passengers, the operators and the government. The proposed ferry network design formulation and the suggested new ferry routes will have a positive impact on changing the ferry system’s image in Hong Kong.


ferry planning passenger ferry optimization framework transit routes 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baaj, MH, Mahmassani, HS 1991An AI-based approach for transit route system planning and designJournal of Advanced Transportation25187210Google Scholar
  2. Baaj, MH, Mahmassani, HS 1995Hybrid route generation heuristic algorithm for the design of transit networkTransportation Research3C3150Google Scholar
  3. Bielli, M, Caramia, M, Carotenuto, P 2002Genetic algorithms in bus network optimizationTransportation Research10C1934Google Scholar
  4. Ceder, A 1984Bus frequency determination using passenger count dataTransportation Research18A439453Google Scholar
  5. Ceder, A 2001aOperational objective functions in designing public transport routesJournal of Advanced Transportation35125144Google Scholar
  6. Ceder A (2001b) A study on the future development of waterborn services. Hong Kong Ministry of Transportation, Final Report.Google Scholar
  7. Ceder, A 2003Designing public transport network and routesWilliam, LamMichael, Bell eds. Advanced Modeling for Transit Operations and Service PlanningPergamon Imprint, Elsevier Science Ltd.Amsterdam5991Chapter 3.Google Scholar
  8. Israeli, Y, Ceder, A 1996Public transportation assignment with passenger strategies for overlapping route choiceLesort, J.B. eds. Transportation and Traffic Theory (13th ISTTT)Elsevier Science & PergamonAmsterdam561588Google Scholar
  9. Marguier, PHJ, Ceder, A 1984Passenger waiting strategies for overlapping bus routesTransportation Science18207230Google Scholar
  10. Ortuzar, J de D, Willumsen, LG 1994Modeling TransportJ.W. Wiley & SonsChichester, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  11. Pattnaik, SB, Mohan, S, Tom, VM 1998Urban bus transit route network design using genetic algorithmJournal of Transportation Engineering124368375Google Scholar
  12. Ramirez, AI, Seneviratne, PN 1996Transit route design applications using geographic information systemsTransportation Research Record15571014Google Scholar
  13. Soehodo, S, Koshi, M 1999Design of public transit network in urban area with elastic demandJournal of Advanced Transportation33335369Google Scholar
  14. Tom, VM, Mohan, S 2003Transit route network design using frequency coded genetic algorithmJournal of Transportation Engineering129186195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Wan, QK, Lo, HK 20022-Phase transit network design in an integrated transit system, advanced modeling for transit operations and service planning, Workshop ProceedingsCrousher Advanced Study InstituteHong KongGoogle Scholar
  16. Yan, S, Chen, HL 2002A scheduling model and a solution algorithm for inter-city bus carriersTransportation Research36805825Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Transportation Research Institute, Civil and Environmental Engineering FacultyTechnion–Israel Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael

Personalised recommendations