Advertisement

Fertility and Infertility: Toward an Integrative Research Agenda

  • Katherine M. Johnson
  • Arthur L. Greil
  • Karina M. Shreffler
  • Julia McQuillan
Original Research

Abstract

In this article, we show that social science research on fertility and infertility consists of largely separate research traditions, despite shared interest in pregnancies and births (or lack thereof). We describe four ways these two traditions differ: (1) publication trajectories and outlets, (2) fields of study and major theoretical frameworks, (3) degree of attention to the other topic, and (4) language and definitions used. We then discuss why future integration of these bodies of research would be beneficial, outline potential steps toward rapprochement, and provide common areas of dialogue that could facilitate and enrich these bodies of research. We offer a more holistic framework using the reproductive career as an extension of existing lifecourse approaches in both fertility and infertility research. We conclude with a brief empirical example and discussion of methodological issues for measuring and modeling reproductive careers.

Keywords

Fertility Infertility Lifecourse Reproductive career Reproduction 

Notes

Acknowledgements

An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 2011 NCFR Theory Construction and Research Methodology Workshop.

Funding

This research was supported in part by a Grant from NICHD [R01-HD044144 “Infertility: Pathways and Psychosocial Outcomes” (Lynn White and David Johnson, Co-PIs)].

References

  1. Abbott, A., & Tsay, A. (2009). Sequence analysis and optimal matching methods in sociology: Review and prospect. Sociological Methods and Research, 29(3), 3–33.Google Scholar
  2. Agadjanian, V. (2002). Men’s talk about “women’s matters”: Gender, communication, and contraception in urban Mozambique. Gender & Society, 16(2), 194–215.Google Scholar
  3. Agigian, A. C. (2004). Baby steps: How lesbian alternative insemination is changing the world. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Aldous, J. (1978). Family careers: Developmental change in families. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. Almeling, R. (2010). Sex cells: The medical market for eggs and sperm. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  6. Almeling, R., & Waggoner, M. R. (2013). More and less than equal: How men factor into the reproductive equation. Gender & Society, 27(6), 821–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM). (2008). Definitions of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss. Fertility and Sterility, 90, S60.Google Scholar
  8. Aneshensel, C. S. (2013). Mental illness as a career: Sociological perspectives. In C. S. Aneshensel, J. C. Phelan, & A. Bierman (Eds.), Handbook of the sociology of mental health (pp. 603–620). Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnes, L. W. (2014). Conceiving masculinity: Male infertility, medicine, and identity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Becker, G. (1960). An economic analysis of fertility. Demographic and economic change in developed countries: A Conference of the Universities-National Bureau Committee for economic research (pp. 209–231). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Becker, H. S. (1973). Outsiders: Studies in the sociology of deviance. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  12. Becker, G. (2000). The elusive embryo: How men and women approach the new reproductive technologies. Berkeley: UC Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Becker, G., & Nachtigall, R. (1992). Eager for medicalisation: The social production of infertility as a disease. Sociology of Health & Illness, 14(4), 456–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bell, A. V. (2014). Misconceptions: Social class and infertility in America. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bessett, D. (2010). Pregnancy after ‘problems’: Women’s experiences of stigmatized reproductive careers. Paper presented at 2010 Eastern Sociological Association Meetings, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  16. Bhandan, A., & Wagner, T. (2006). Self-reported utilization of health care services: improving measurement and accuracy. Medical Care Research and Review, 63(2), 217–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic interactionism: Perspective and method. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  18. Blumstein, A. (1986). Criminal careers and career criminals (Vol. 2). Washington, DC: National Academies.Google Scholar
  19. Boivin, J., Bunting, L., Collins, J. A., & Nygren, K. G. (2007). International estimates of infertility prevalence and treatment-seeking: potential need and demand for infertility medical care. Human Reproduction, 22(6), 1506–1512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boldt, E. D., & Latif, A. H. (1977). Contraceptive careers: Toward a subjective approach to fertility regulating behavior. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 8(3), 357–367.Google Scholar
  21. Bongaarts, J. (1978). A framework for analyzing the proximate determinants of fertility. Population and Development Review, 4(1), 105–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bongaarts, J. (1991). The KAP-gap and the unmet need for contraception. Population and Development Review, 17(2), 293–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bongaarts, J. (2001). Fertility and reproductive preferences in post-transitional societies. Population and Development Review, 27(supplement), 260–281.Google Scholar
  24. Bongaarts, J. (2002). The end of the fertility transition in the developed world. Population and Development Review, 28(3), 419–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bongaarts, J., & Potter, R. G. (1983). Natural fertility and its proximate determinants. In J. Bongaarts & R. G. Potter (Eds.), Fertility, biology, and behavior. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  26. Bongaarts, J., & Watkins, S. C. (1996). Social interactions and contemporary fertility transitions. Population and Development Review, 22(4), 639–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Brady, M. (2003). Preventing sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy, and safeguarding fertility: Triple protection needs of young women. Reproductive Health Matters, 11(2), 134–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brzinsky-Fay, C., Kohler, U., & Luniak, M. (2006). Sequence analysis with Stata. The Stata Journal, 6(4), 435–460.Google Scholar
  29. Bulatao, R. A., & Fawcett, J. T. (1983). Influences on childbearing intentions across the fertility career: Demographic and socioeconomic factors and the value of children. Honolulu: East-West Population Institute.Google Scholar
  30. Burkhauser, R. V., & Lillard, D. R. (2005). The contribution and potential of data harmonization for cross-national comparative research. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 7(4), 313–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Caldwell, J. C. (2005). On net intergenerational wealth flows: An update. Population and Development Review, 31(4), 721–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Carmeli, Y., & Birenbaum-Carmeli, D. (1994). The predicament of masculinity: Towards understanding the male’s experience of infertility treatments. Sex Roles, 30(9), 663–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Casterline, J. B., & El-Zeini, L. O. (2007). The estimation of unwanted fertility. Demography, 44(4), 729–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chatfield, M. D., Brayne, C. E., & Matthews, F. E. (2005). A systematic literature review of attrition between waves in longitudinal studies in the elderly shows a consistent pattern of dropout between differing studies. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 58(1), 13–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cherlin, A. (2004). The deinstitutionalization of American marriage. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(4), 848–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Coale, A. J. (1973). The demographic transition reconsidered. International Population Conference, Liege (Vol. 1, pp. 53–72). Liege: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.Google Scholar
  37. Coale, A. J., & Cotts-Watkins, S. (1986). The decline of fertility in Europe. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Daar, A.S., & Merali, Z. (2001). Infertility and social suffering: The case of ART in developing countries. Current Practices and Controversies in Assisted Reproduction. World Health Organization Report from Medical, Ethical and Social Aspects of Assisted Reproduction.Google Scholar
  39. Davis, A. (1998). Age differences in dating and marriage: Reproductive strategies or social preference? Current Anthropology, 39(3), 374–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dickey, R. P. (2007). The relative contribution of assisted reproductive technologies and ovulation induction to multiple births in the United States 5 years after the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine recommendation to limit the number of embryos transferred. Fertility and Sterility, 88(6), 1554–1561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dodoo, F. N. A., & Frost, A. E. (2008). Gender in African population research: The fertility/reproductive health example. Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 431–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dye, J. L. (2010). Fertility of American women: June 2008. Current Population Reports P20-563. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  43. Earle, S., Foley, P., Komaromy, C., & Lloyd, C. (2008). Conceptualizing reproductive loss: A social sciences perspective. Human Fertility, 11(4), 259–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Elder, G. J., Jr., Johnson, M. K., & Crosnoe, R. (2003). The emergence and development of life course theory. In J. T. Mortimer & M. J. Shanahan (Eds.), Handbook of the life course (pp. 3–19). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Elzinga, C. H., & Liefbroer, A. C. (2007). De-standardization of family-life trajectories of young adults: A cross-national comparison using sequence analysis. European Journal of Population, 23(3–4), 225–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Exley, C., & Letherby, G. (2001). Managing a disrupted lifecourse: Issues of identity and emotion work. Health, 5(1), 112–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Feldman-Savelsberg, P. (2002). Is infertility an unrecognized public health and population problem? The view from the Cameroon Grassfields. In M. C. Inhorn & F. van Balen (Eds.), Infertility around the globe: New thinking on childlessness, gender, and reproductive technologies (pp. 215–232). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  48. Fennell, J. L. (2011). Men bring condoms, women take pills: Men’s and women’s roles in contraceptive decision making. Gender & Society, 25(4), 496–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fillieule, O., & Blanchard, P. (n.d.). Fighting together: Assessing the heterogeneity of social movement organizations’ constituencies. Working Paper.Google Scholar
  50. Forste, R. (2002). Where are all the men? A conceptual analysis of the role of men in family formation. Journal of Family Issues, 23(5), 579–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Frank, O. (1983). Infertility in sub-Saharan Africa: Estimates and implications. Population and Development Review, 9(1), 137–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Frank, O., & McNicoll, G. (1987). An interpretation of fertility and population policy in Kenya. Population and Development Review, 13(2), 209–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Freda, M. C., Devine, K. S., & Semelsberger, C. (2003). The lived experience of miscarriage after infertility. MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 28(1), 16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ginsburg, F., & Rapp, R. (1991). The politics of reproduction. Annual Review of Anthropology, 20, 311–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gleicher, N., Campbell, D. P., Lin, D. C., Karande, V., Rao, R., Balin, M., et al. (1995). The desire for multiple births in couples with infertility problems contradicts present practice patterns. Human Reproduction, 10(5), 1079–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Goldscheider, F. K., & Kaufman, G. (1996). Fertility and commitment: Bringing men back in. Population and Development Review, 22(supplement), 87–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Greene, M. E., & Biddlecom, A. E. (2000). Absent and problematic men: Demographic accounts of male reproductive roles. Population and Development Review, 26(1), 81–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Greenhalgh, S. (Ed.). (1995). Situating fertility: Anthropology and demographic inquiry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Greil, A. L. (1991). Not yet pregnant: Infertile couples in contemporary America. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Greil, A. L. (1997). Infertility and psychological distress: A critical review of the literature. Social Science and Medicine, 45(11), 1679–1704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Greil, A. L., Johnson, K. M., McQuillan, J., & Lacy, N. (2011). Are prior pregnancy outcomes relevant for models of fertility specific distress or infertility helpseeking? Human Fertility, 14(3), 160–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Greil, A. L., & McQuillan, J. (2004). Help-seeking patterns among subfecund women. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 22(4), 305–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Greil, A. L., & McQuillan, J. (2010). Trying times: Medicalization, intent, and ambiguity in the definition of infertility. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 24(2), 137–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Greil, A. L., McQuillan, J., Johnson, K. M., Slauson-Blevins, K., & Shreffler, K. (2010). The hidden infertile: Infertile women without pregnancy intent in the United States. Fertility and Sterility, 93(6), 2080–2083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Greil, A. L., Slauson-Blevins, K., Tiemeyer, S., McQuillan, J., & Shreffler, K. M. (2016). A new way to estimate the potential unmet need for infertility services among women in the United States. Journal of Women’s Health, 25(2), 133–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hagewen, K. J., & Morgan, S. P. (2005). Intended and ideal family size in the United States, 1970–2002. Population and Development Review, 31(3), 507–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Harpending, H. (1994). Infertility and forager demography. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 93(3), 385–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hayford, S. R. (2009). The evolution of fertility expectations over the life course. Demography, 46(4), 765–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hayford, S. R., Guzzo, K. B., & Smock, P. J. (2014). The decoupling of marriage and parenthood? Trends in the timing of marital first births, 1945–2002. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76(3), 520–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hertz, R. (2006). Single by chance, mothers by choice: How women are choosing parenthood without marriage and creating the new American family. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Johnson, K. M., & Fledderjohann, J. (2012). Revisiting ‘her’ infertility: Medicalized embodiment, self-identification, and distress. Social Science and Medicine, 75(5), 883–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Johnson, K. M., McQuillan, J., Greil, A. L., & Shreffler, K. M. (2014). Towards a more inclusive framework for understanding fertility barriers. In Meredith Nash (Ed.), Reframing reproduction: Conceiving gendered experiences. London: Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
  73. Johnson, K. M., Shreffler, K. M., Greil, A. L., & McQuillan, J. (2018). “Density and Complexity: Analyzing U.S. Women’s Reproductive Careers.” Working paper to be presented at the Population Association of America Annual Meetings, Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  74. Johnson-Hanks, J. A., Bachrach, C., Morgan, S. P., & Kohler, H. (2011). Understanding family change and variation: Toward a theory of conjunctural action (Vol. 5). New York: Springer Science & Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. King, R. B. (2003). Subfecundity and anxiety in a nationally representative sample. Social Science and Medicine, 56(4), 739–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kirk, D. (1996). Demographic transition theory. Population Studies, 50(3), 361–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Larsen, U. (1994). Sterility in sub-Saharan Africa. Population Studies, 48(3), 459–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Larsen, U. (2005). Research on infertility: Which definition should we use? Fertility and Sterility, 83(4), 846–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Leridon, H. (2008). A new estimate of permanent sterility by age: Sterility defined as the inability to conceive. Population Studies, 62(1), 15–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lesthaeghe, R. (1980). On the social control of human reproduction. Population and Development Review, 6(4), 527–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lesthaeghe, R. (2010). The unfolding story of the second demographic transition. Population and Development Review, 36(2), 211–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Letherby, G. (1999). Other than mothers and mothers as others: The experience of motherhood and non-motherhood in relation to ‘infertility’ and ‘involuntary childlessness’. Women’s Studies International Forum, 22(3), 359–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Leyser-Whalen, O., Greil, A. L., McQuillan, J., Johnson, K. M., & Shreffler, K. M. (2018). “Just because a doctor says something, doesn’t mean that [it] will happen”: self-perception as having a fertility problem among infertility patients. Sociology of Health & Illness, 40(3), 445–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Little, R. J., & Rubin, D. B. (2014). Statistical analysis with missing data. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  85. Livingston, G. (2018). They’re waiting longer, but U. S. women today more likely to have children than a decade ago. Pew Research Center Social and Demographic Trends. Retrieved online March 2018 from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2018/01/18/theyre-waiting-longer-but-u-s-women-today-more-likely-to-have-children-than-a-decade-ago/.
  86. Lloyd, M. (1996). Condemned to be meaningful: Non-response in studies of men and infertility. Sociology of Health & Illness, 18(4), 433–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lorber, J., & Bandlamudi, L. (1993). The dynamics of marital bargaining in male infertility. Gender & Society, 7(1), 32–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Maheshwari, A., Porter, M., Shetty, A., & Bhattacharya, S. (2008). Women’s awareness and perceptions of delay in childbearing. Fertility and Sterility, 90(4), 1036–1042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Martin, L. J. (2009). Reproductive tourism in the age of globalization. Globalizations, 6(2), 249–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Martin, L. J. (2010). Anticipating infertility. Gender & Society, 24(4), 526–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Martin, J. A., Hamilton, B., Sutton, P. D., Ventura, S. J., Menacker, F., Kirmeyer, S., et al. (2009). Births: Final data for 2006. National Vital Statistics Reports, 57, 1–104.Google Scholar
  92. Mason, K. O. (1997). Explaining fertility transitions. Demography, 34(4), 443–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Matthews, R., & Martin Matthews, A. (1986). Infertility and involuntary childlessness: The transition to non-parenthood. Journal of Marriage and Family, 48(3), 641–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Maximova, K., & Quesnel-Vallée, A. (2009). Mental health consequences of unintended childlessness and unplanned births: Gender differences and life course dynamics. Social Science and Medicine, 68(5), 850–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. McFalls, J. A. (1990). The risks of reproductive impairment in the later years of childbearing. Annual Review of Sociology, 16, 491–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. McKinlay, J. B. (1971). The concept of patient career as a heuristic device for making medical sociology relevant to medical students. Social Science and Medicine, 5(5), 441–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self, and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  98. Miall, C. E. (1986). The stigma of involuntary childlessness. Social Problems, 33(1), 268–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Miller, W. B., & Pasta, D. J. (1995). Behavioral intentions: Which ones predict fertility behavior in married couples? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25(6), 530–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Moore, D. E., & Hayward, M. D. (1990). Occupational careers and mortality of elderly men. Demography, 27(1), 31–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Morgan, S. P. (1991). Late nineteenth and early twentieth-century childlessness. American Journal of Sociology, 97(3), 779–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Morgan, S. P. (2001). Should fertility intentions inform fertility forecasts? The direction of fertility in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  103. Morgan, S. P., & Hagewen, K. J. (2006). Fertility. In D. L. Poston & M. Micklin (Eds.), Handbook of Population (pp. 229–249). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  104. Morgan, S. P., & Rackin, H. (2010). The correspondence between fertility intentions and behavior in the United States. Population and Development Review, 36(1), 91–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Morgan, S. P., & Taylor, M. G. (2006). Low fertility at the turn of the twenty-first century. Annual Review of Sociology, 32, 375–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Musick, K. (2002). Planned and unplanned childbearing among unmarried women. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(4), 915–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]. (2016). About the National Survey of Family Growth. National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved online March 2018 from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nsfg/about_nsfg.htm.
  108. Okonofua, F. E., Harris, D., Odebiyl, A., Kane, T., & Snow, R. C. (2004). The social meaning of infertility in Southwest Nigeria. Health Transition Center, National Center for Epidemiology and Popular Health, The Australian National University. https://www.hdl.handle.net/1885/41267.
  109. Pescosolido, B. A. (1991). Illness careers and network ties: A conceptual model of utilization and compliance. Advances in Medical Sociology, 2(16), 164–181.Google Scholar
  110. Preston, S., Heuveline, P., & Guillot, M. (2001). Demography: Modeling population processes. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  111. Rendall, M. S., Clarke, H. L., Peters, E., Ranjit, N., & Verropoulou, G. (1999). Incomplete reporting of men’s fertility in the United States and Britain: A research note. Demography, 36(1), 135–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Rindfuss, R. R., Morgan, S. P., & Offutt, K. (1996). Education and the changing age pattern of American fertility: 1963–1989. Demography, 33(3), 277–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Robinson, W. C. (1997). The economic theory of fertility over three decades. Population Studies, 51(1), 63–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Rowland, D. T. (2007). Historical trends in childlessness. Journal of Family Issues, 28(10), 1311–1337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rutstein, S. O., & Shah, I. H. (2004). Infecundity, infertility, and childlessness in developing countries. DHS Comparative Reports No. 9. Calverton, Maryland, USA: ORC Macro and the World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  116. Ryan, G. L., Zhang, S., Dokras, A., Syrop, C. H., & Van Voorhis, B. (2004). The desire of infertile patients for multiple births. Fertility and Sterility, 81(3), 500–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sandelowski, M. (1993). With child in mind: Studies of the personal encounter with infertility. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sax, L. J., Gilmartin, S. K., & Bryant, A. N. (2003). Assessing response rates and nonresponse bias in web and paper surveys. Research in Higher Education, 44(4), 409–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Schmidt, L., Sobotka, T., Bentzen, J. G., & Andersen, A. N. (2012). Demographic and medical consequences of the postponement of parenthood. Human Reproduction Update, 18(1), 29–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Schoen, R., Astone, N. M., Kim, Y. J., Nathanson, C. J., & Fields, J. M. (1999). Do fertility intentions affect fertility behavior? Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61(3), 790–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Schroder, K. E., Carey, M. P., & Vanable, P. A. (2003). Methodological challenges in research on sexual risk behavior: II. Accuracy of self-reports. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 26(2), 104–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Shirani, F., & Henwood, K. (2011). Taking one day at a time: Temporal experiences in the context of unexpected life course transitions. Time & Society, 20(1), 49–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Shreffler, K. M., Greil, A. L., & McQuillan, J. (2011). Pregnancy loss and distress among U.S. women. Family Relations, 60(3), 342–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Shreffler, K. M., Greil, A. L., Mitchell, K. S., & McQuillan, J. (2015). Variation in pregnancy intendedness across US women’s pregnancies. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(5), 932–938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Shreffler, K. M., Tiemeyer, S., Dorius, C., Spierling, T., Greil, A. L., & McQuillan, J. (2016). Infertility and fertility intentions, desires, and outcomes among U.S. women. Demographic Research, 35, 1149–1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sobotka, T., Hansen, M. A., Jensen, T. K., Pedersen, A. T., Lutz, W., & Skakkebaek, N. E. (2008). The contribution of assisted reproduction to completed fertility: An analysis of Danish data. Population and Development Review, 34(1), 79–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Stebbins, R. A. (1970). Career: A subjective approach. Sociological Quarterly, 11(1), 32–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Stephen, E. H. (2000). Demographic implications of reproductive technologies. Population Research and Policy Review, 19(4), 301–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Stephen, E. H., & Chandra, A. (2000). Use of infertility services in the United States: 1995. Family Planning Perspectives, 32(4), 132–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Sundby, J. (2002). Infertility and health care in countries with less resources: Case studies from Sub-Saharan Africa. In M. C. Inhorn & F. van Balen (Eds.), Infertility around the globe: New thinking on childlessness, gender, and reproductive technologies (pp. 247–260). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  131. Sunderam, S., Kissin, D. M., Crawford, S. B., Folger, S. G., Jamieson, D. J., & Barfield, W. D. (2014). Assisted reproductive technology surveillance—United States, 2011. Surveillance Summaries, 63(SS10), 1–28.Google Scholar
  132. Sweeney, M. M., & Raley, R. K. (2014). Race, ethnicity, and the changing context of childbearing in the United States. Annual Review of Sociology, 40, 539–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Szreter, S. (1993). The idea of demographic transition and the study of fertility change: A critical intellectual history. Population and Development Review, 19(4), 659–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Thompson, C. (2002). Fertile ground: Feminists theorize infertility. In M. C. Inhorn & F. van Balen (Eds.), Infertility around the globe: New thinking on childlessness, gender, and reproductive technologies (pp. 52–78). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  135. Thomson, E. (1997). Couple childbearing desires, intentions, and births. Demography, 34(3), 343–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. van Balen, F. (2002). The psychologization of infertility. In M. C. Inhorn & F. van Balen (Eds.), Infertility around the globe: New thinking on childlessness, gender, and reproductive technologies (pp. 79–98). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  137. van Balen, F., & Inhorn, M. C. (2002). Introduction. In M. C. Inhorn & F. van Balen (Eds.), Infertility around the globe: New thinking on childlessness, gender, and reproductive technologies (pp. 3–32). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  138. Watkins, S. C., & Danzi, A. (1995). Women’s gossip and social change: Childbirth and fertility control among Italian and Jewish women in the United States, 1920-1940. Gender & Society, 9(4), 469–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. White, L., McQuillan, J., Greil, A. L., & Johnson, D. R. (2006). Infertility: Testing a help-seeking model. Social Science and Medicine, 62(4), 1031–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katherine M. Johnson
    • 1
  • Arthur L. Greil
    • 2
  • Karina M. Shreffler
    • 3
  • Julia McQuillan
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of SociologyTulane UniversityNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.Alfred UniversityAlfredUSA
  3. 3.Oklahoma State UniversityTulsaUSA
  4. 4.University of Nebraska, LincolnLincolnUSA

Personalised recommendations