Population Research and Policy Review

, Volume 36, Issue 5, pp 671–697 | Cite as

Getting Under the Skin: Children’s Health Disparities as Embodiment of Social Class

  • Michael R. Kramer
  • Eric B. Schneider
  • Jennifer B. Kane
  • Claire Margerison-Zilko
  • Jessica Jones-Smith
  • Katherine King
  • Pamela Davis-Kean
  • Joseph G. Grzywacz


Social class gradients in children’s health and development are ubiquitous across time and geography. The authors develop a conceptual framework relating three actions of class—material allocation, salient group identity, and inter-group conflict—to the reproduction of class-based disparities in child health. A core proposition is that the actions of class stratification create variation in children’s mesosystems and microsystems in distinct locations in the ecology of everyday life. Variation in mesosystems (e.g., health care, neighborhoods) and microsystems (e.g., family structure, housing) become manifest in a wide variety of specific experiences and environments that produce the behavioral and biological antecedents to health and disease among children. The framework is explored via a review of theoretical and empirical contributions from multiple disciplines, and high-priority areas for future research are highlighted.


Children’s health Social class Health status disparity Social theory 



The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health & Human Development of the National Institutes of Health provided support for MRK (K01HD074726), JBK (K99/R00 HD075860), PDK (R01HD061294), and JGG (R01HD061010); CMZ received support from National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (K01HL128843); EBS received support from the Economic and Social Research Council (ES/L010267/1).


  1. Alvarado, S. E. (2016). Neighborhood disadvantage and obesity across childhood and adolescence: Evidence from the NLSY children and young adults cohort (1986–2010). Social Science Research, 57, 80–98. doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2016.01.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amato, M. S., Moore, C. F., Magzamen, S., Imm, P., Havlena, J. A., Anderson, H. A., et al. (2012). Lead exposure and educational proficiency: Moderate lead exposure and educational proficiency on end-of-grade examinations. Annals of Epidemiology, 22(10), 738–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arcaya, M. C., Tucker-Seeley, R. D., Kim, R., Schnake-Mahl, A., So, M., & Subramanian, S. V. (2016). Research on neighborhood effects on health in the United States: A systematic review of study characteristics. Social Science and Medicine, 168, 16–29. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.08.047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailey, M. J., & Dynarski, S. M. (2011). Gains and gaps: Changing inequality in US college entry and completion. NBER working papers, (17633).Google Scholar
  5. Baker, D., Taylor, H., & Henderson, J. (1998). Inequality in infant morbidity: Causes and consequences in England in the 1990s. ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 52(7), 451–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauer, G. R. (2014). Incorporating intersectionality theory into population health research methodology: Challenges and the potential to advance health equity. Social Science and Medicine, 110, 10–17. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.03.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bettinelli, M. E. (2012). Breastfeeding policies and breastfeeding support programs in the mother’s workplace. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med, 25(Suppl 4), 81–82. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2012.715033.Google Scholar
  8. Borrell, L. N., Graham, L., & Joseph, S. P. (2016). Associations of neighborhood safety and neighborhood support with overweight and obesity in US Children and Adolescents. Ethnicity and Disease, 26(4), 469–476. doi: 10.18865/ed.26.4.469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bramlett, M. D., & Blumberg, S. J. (2007). Family structure and children’s physical and mental health. Health Affairs, 26(2), 549–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Ceci, S. J. (1994). Nature-nuture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: A bioecological model. Psychological Review, 101(4), 568–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bronte-Tinkew, J., Horowitz, A., & Scott, M. E. (2009). Fathering with multiple partners: Links to children’s well-being in early childhood. Journal of Marriage and Family, 71(3), 608–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bzostek, S. H. (2008). Social fathers and child well-being. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(4), 950–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bzostek, S. H., & Beck, A. N. (2011). Familial instability and young children’s physical health. Social Science and Medicine, 73(2), 282–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carr, D., & Springer, K. W. (2010). Advances in families and health research in the 21st century. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3), 743–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carroll-Scott, A., Gilstad-Hayden, K., Rosenthal, L., Eldahan, A., McCaslin, C., Peters, S. M., et al. (2015). Associations of neighborhood and school socioeconomic and social contexts with body mass index among urban preadolescent students. American Journal of Public Health, 105(12), 2496–2502. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2015.302882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Case, A., Fertig, A., & Paxson, C. (2005). The lasting impact of childhood health and circumstance. J Health Econ, 24(2), 365–389. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2004.09.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Case, A., & Paxson, C. (2001). Mothers and others: Who invests in children’s health? Journal of health economics, 20(3), 301–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). CDC response to advisory committee on childhood lead poisoning prevention recommendations in “Low Level Lead Exposure Harms Children: A Renewed Call of Primary Prevention”. GA: Retrieved from Atlanta.Google Scholar
  19. Chambers, E. C., Pichardo, M. S., & Rosenbaum, E. (2014). Sleep and the housing and neighborhood environment of urban Latino adults living in low-income housing: The AHOME study. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 1-16.Google Scholar
  20. Cheadle, J. E., & Amato, P. R. (2011). A Quantitative assessment of Lareau’s qualitative conclusions about class, race, and parenting. Journal of Family Issues, 32(5), 679–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen, E., & Paterson, L. Q. (2006). Neighborhood, family, and subjective socioeconomic status: How do they relate to adolescent health? Health Psychology, 25(6), 704–714. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.25.6.704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chetty, R., Hendren, N., & Katz, L. F. (2015). The effects of exposure to better neighborhoods on children: New evidence from the Moving to Opportunity experiment. (w21156).Google Scholar
  23. Christakis, D. A., Mell, L., Koepsell, T. D., Zimmerman, F. J., & Connell, F. A. (2001). Association of lower continuity of care with greater risk of emergency department use and hospitalization in children. Pediatrics, 107(3), 524–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Christakis, D. A., Mell, L., Wright, J. A., Davis, R., & Connell, F. A. (2000). The association between greater continuity of care and timely measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. American Journal of Public Health, 90(6), 962–965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chuang, Y. C., Ennett, S. T., Bauman, K. E., & Foshee, V. A. (2005). Neighborhood influences on adolescent cigarette and alcohol use: Mediating effects through parent and peer behaviors. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46(2), 187–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chuang, Y. C., Ennett, S. T., Bauman, K. E., & Foshee, V. A. (2009). Relationships of adolescents’ perceptions of parental and peer behaviors with cigarette and alcohol use in different neighborhood contexts. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(10), 1388–1398. doi: 10.1007/s10964-009-9424-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Culhane, J. F., & Elo, I. T. (2005). Neighborhood context and reproductive health. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 192(5 Suppl), S22–S29. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2005.01.071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cummins, S., Curtis, S., Diez-Roux, A. V., & Macintyre, S. (2007). Understanding and representing ‘place’ in health research: A relational approach. Social Science and Medicine, 65(9), 1825–1838. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.05.036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dawson, D. A. (1991). Family structure and children’s health and well-being: Data from the 1988 National Health Interview Survey on Child Health. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 573-584.Google Scholar
  30. Desai, S., & Alva, S. (1998). Maternal education and child health: Is there a strong causal relationship? Demography, 35(1), 71–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Devoe, J. E., Baez, A., Angier, H., Krois, L., Edlund, C., & Carney, P. A. (2007). Insurance + access not equal to health care: Typology of barriers to health care access for low-income families. Annals of Family Medicine, 5(6), 511–518. doi: 10.1370/afm.748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dietrich, K. N., Douglas, R. M., Succop, P. A., Berger, O. G., & Bornschein, R. L. (2001). Early exposure to lead and juvenile delinquency. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 23(6), 511–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Donnelly, L., McLanahan, S., Brooks-Gunn, J., Garfinkel, I., Wagner, B. G., Jacobsen, W. C., et al. (2016). Cohesive neighborhoods where social expectations are shared may have positive impact on adolescent mental health. Health Aff (Millwood), 35(11), 2083–2091. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2016.0721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Doty, M. M., Collins, S. R., Robertson, R., & Garber, T. (2011). When unemployed means uninsured: The toll of job loss on health coverage, and how the Affordable Care Act will help. Issue Brief (Commonw Fund), 18, 1–18.Google Scholar
  35. Duncan, G. J., & Murnane, R. J. (Eds.). (2011). Whither opportunity?: Rising inequality, schools, and children’s life chances. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  36. Dush, C. M. K., Schmeer, K. K., & Taylor, M. (2013). Chaos as a social determinant of child health: Reciprocal associations? Social Science and Medicine, 95, 69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. East, P. L., & Khoo, S. T. (2005). Longitudinal pathways linking family factors and sibling relationship qualities to adolescent substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(4), 571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Eisenberg, M. E., & Forster, J. L. (2003). Adolescent smoking behavior: Measures of social norms. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25(2), 122–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ennett, S. T., Flewelling, R. L., Lindrooth, R. C., & Norton, E. C. (1997). School and neighborhood characteristics associated with school rates of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 38(1), 55–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Evans, G. W., Miller, C. E., & Seeman, T. (2012). How poverty gets under the skin: A life course perspective. In R. King & V. Maholmes (Eds.), Oxford handbook of poverty and child development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Frohlich, K. L., Potvin, L., Gauvin, L., & Chabot, P. (2002). Youth smoking initiation: Disentangling context from composition. Health Place, 8(3), 155–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fronstin, P. (2013). Sources of health insurance and characteristics of the uninsured: Analysis of the March 2013 current population survey. EBRI Issue Brief, 1(390), 4–34.Google Scholar
  43. Gassman-Pines, A., Gibson-Davis, C. M., & Ananat, E. O. (2015). How economic downturns affect children’s development: An interdisciplinary perspective on pathways of influence. Child Development Perspectives, 9(4), 233–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goldin, C., & Katz, L. F. (2000). Education and income in the early twentieth century: Evidence from the prairies. The Journal of Economic History, 60(03), 782–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Goldin, C., & Katz, L. F. (2007). The race between education and technology: The Evolution of U.S. Educational Wage Differentials, 1890 to 2005. NBER Working Paper (12984).Google Scholar
  46. Gordon, M. M. (1949). Social class in American sociology. American Journal of Sociology, 55, 262–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gorman, B. K., & Braverman, J. (2008). Family structure differences in health care utilization among US children. Social Science and Medicine, 67(11), 1766–1775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hadley, J. (2003). Sicker and poorer–the consequences of being uninsured: A review of the research on the relationship between health insurance medical care use health work and income. Medical Care Research and Review, 60(2 Suppl), 3S–75S. discussion 76S-112S.Google Scholar
  49. Harknett, K. (2009). Why are children with married parents healthier? The case of pediatric asthma. Population Research and Policy Review, 28(3), 347–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Haurin, D. R., Parcel, T. L., & Haurin, R. J. (2002). Does homeownership affect child outcomes? Real Estate Economics, 30(4), 635–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hawkins, S. S., Griffiths, L. J., Dezateux, C., Law, C., & Millennium Cohort Study Child Health, G. (2007). The impact of maternal employment on breast-feeding duration in the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Public Health Nutr, 10(9), 891–896. doi: 10.1017/S1368980007226096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Health, U. D. O., Services, H., Health, U. D. O., & Services, H. (2003). National healthcare disparities report. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and QualityGoogle Scholar
  53. Heckman, J. J. (2006). Skill formation and the economics of investing in disadvantaged children. Science, 312(5782), 1900–1902. doi: 10.1126/science.1128898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Heckman, J. J., Moon, S. H., Pinto, R., Savelyev, P. A., & Yavitz, A. (2010). The rate of return to the high scope perry preschool program. Journal of public economics, 94, 114–128. doi: 10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Heymann, J. (2001). The Widening Gap. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  56. House, J. S., Landis, K. R., & Umberson, D. (1988a). Social relationships and health. Science, 241(4865), 540–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. House, J. S., Umberson, D., & Landis, K. R. (1988b). Structures and processes of social support. Annual Review of Sociology, 14, 293–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hummer, R. A., & Lariscy, J. T. (2011). Educational attainment and adult mortality. In R. G. Rogers & E. M. Crimmins (Eds.), International handbook of adult mortality. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  59. Huynh, M., & Maroko, A. R. (2014). Gentrification and preterm birth in New York City, 2008-2010. J Urban Health, 91(1), 211–220. doi: 10.1007/s11524-013-9823-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jaakkola, J. J., Hwang, B.-F., & Jaakkola, N. (2005). Home dampness and molds, parental atopy, and asthma in childhood: A six-year population-based cohort study. Environmental health perspectives, 113, 357–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jablonski, K. A., & Guagliardo, M. F. (2005). Pediatric appendicitis rupture rate: A national indicator of disparities in healthcare access. Popul Health Metr, 3(1), 4. doi: 10.1186/1478-7954-3-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Johnston, R. (2000). Clearing the air: Asthma and indoor air exposures: Washington. DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  63. Kane, J. B. (2016). Marriage advantages in perinatal health: Evidence of marriage selection or marriage protection?Journal of Marriage and Family, 78(1), 212–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kane, J. B., & Lam, C. B. (2011). A promising approach to future biosocial research on the family: Considering the role of temporal context. In A. Booth, S. M. McHale, & N. S. Landale (Eds.), Biosocial Foundations of Family Processes (pp. 247–264). New York: Springer, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kaushal, N., Magnuson, K., & Waldfogel, J. (2011). How is family income related to investments in children’s learning? In G. J. Duncan & R. J. Murnane (Eds.), Whither opportunity?: Rising inequality, schools, and children’s life chances (pp. 187–206). New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  66. Kessler, R. C., Duncan, G. J., Gennetian, L. A., Katz, L. F., Kling, J. R., Sampson, N. A., et al. (2014). Associations of housing mobility interventions for children in high-poverty neighborhoods with subsequent mental disorders during adolescence. JAMA-Journal of the American Medical Association, 311, 937–947. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kohn, M. L., & Schooler, C. (1983). Work and personality: An inquiry into the impact of social stratification: Ablex PubGoogle Scholar
  68. Komro, K. A., Burris, S., & Wagenaar, A. C. (2014). Social determinants of child health: Concepts and measures for future research. Health Behavior and Policy Review, 1, 432–445. doi: 10.14485/HBPR.1.6.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kramer, M. R., & Hogue, C. R. (2009). Is segregation bad for your health? Epidemiologic Reviews, 31, 178–194. doi: 10.1093/epirev/mxp001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Krieger, N. (2011). Epidemiology and the people’s health: Theory and context. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Krieger, J., & Higgins, D. L. (2002). Housing and health: Time again for public health action. American Journal of Public Health, 92(5), 758–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Krieger, N., Williams, D. R., & Moss, N. E. (1997). Measuring social class in US public health research: Concepts, methodologies, and guidelines. Annual Review of Public Health, 18, 341–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lane, S. P., Bluestone, C., & Burke, C. T. (2013). Trajectories of BMI from early childhood through early adolescence: SES and psychosocial predictors. British Journal of Health Psychology, 18(1), 66–82. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8287.2012.02078.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lareau, A. (2002). Invisible inequality: Social class and childbearing in black families and white families. American Sociological Review, 67(5), 747–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lavarreda, S. A., Snyder, S., & Brown, E. R. (2013). The effects of the great recession on health insurance: Changes in the uninsured population from 2007 to 2009. Policy Brief UCLA Cent Health Policy Res(PB2013-5), 1-8.Google Scholar
  76. Lehman, B. J., Taylor, S. E., Kiefe, C. I., & Seeman, T. E. (2005). Relation of childhood socioeconomic status and family environment to adult metabolic functioning in the CARDIA study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67(6), 846–854. doi: 10.1097/01.psy.0000188443.48405.eb.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Leininger, L. J., Ryan, R. M., & Kalil, A. (2009). Low-income mothers’ social support and children’s injuries. Social Science and Medicine, 68(12), 2113–2121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2004). A randomized study of neighborhood effects on low-income children’s educational outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 40(4), 488–507. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.40.4.488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Leventhal, T., & Newman, S. (2010). Housing and child development. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(9), 1165–1174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Link, B. G., & Phelan, J. (1995). Social conditions as fundamental causes of disease. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Spec No, 80-94Google Scholar
  81. Lipperman-Kreda, S., Grube, J. W., & Paschall, M. J. (2010). Community norms, enforcement of minimum legal drinking age laws, personal beliefs and underage drinking: An explanatory model. Journal of Community Health, 35(3), 249–257. doi: 10.1007/s10900-010-9229-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lovato, C. Y., Zeisser, C., Campbell, H. S., Watts, A. W., Halpin, P., Thompson, M., et al. (2010). Adolescent smoking: Effect of school and community characteristics. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 39(6), 507–514. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2010.08.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lynch, J. W., & Kaplan, G. A. (2000). Socioeconomic Factors. In L. F. Berkman & I. Kawachi (Eds.), Social Epidemiology (pp. 13–35). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Lynch, J. L., & von Hippel, P. T. (2016). An education gradient in health, a health gradient in education, or a confounded gradient in both? Social Science and Medicine, 154, 18–27. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.02.029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Machado-Rodrigues, A. M., Santana, A., Gama, A., Mourão, I., Nogueira, H., Rosado, V., et al. (2014). Parental perceptions of neighborhood environments, BMI, and active behaviors in girls aged 7–9 years. American Journal of Human Biology, 26(5), 670–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Macintyre, S., Ellaway, A., & Cummins, S. (2002). Place effects on health: How can we conceptualise, operationalise and measure them? Social Science and Medicine, 55(1), 125–139. doi: 10.1016/s0277-9536(01)00214-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Margerison-Zilko, C., Cubbin, C., Jun, J., Marchi, K., Fingar, K., & Braveman, P. (2015). Beyond the cross-sectional: Neighborhood poverty histories and preterm birth. American Journal of Public Health, 105(6), 1174–1180. doi: 10.2105/ajph.2014.302441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Masi, C. M., Hawkley, L. C., Piotrowski, Z. H., & Pickett, K. E. (2007). Neighborhood economic disadvantage, violent crime, group density, and pregnancy outcomes in a diverse, urban population. Social Science and Medicine, 65(12), 2440–2457. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.07.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mauldon, J. (1990). The effect of marital disruption on children’s health. Demography, 27(3), 431–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. McCallion, W., Murray, L., Bailie, A., Dalzell, A., O’Reilly, D., & Bamford, K. (1996). Helicobacter pylori infection in children: Relation with current household living conditions. Gut, 39(1), 18–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McClure, R., Kegler, S., Davey, T., & Clay, F. (2015). Contextual determinants of childhood injury: A systematic review of studies with multilevel analytic methods. American Journal of Public Health, 105(12), e37–e43. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2015.302883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. McGrath, J. J., Matthews, K. A., & Brady, S. S. (2006). Individual versus neighborhood socioeconomic status and race as predictors of adolescent ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate. Social Science and Medicine, 63(6), 1442–1453. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.03.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. McHale, S. M., Updegraff, K. A., & Whiteman, S. D. (2012). Sibling relationships and influences in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74(5), 913–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Messer, L. C., Vinikoor, L. C., Laraia, B. A., Kaufman, J. S., Eyster, J., Holzman, C., et al. (2008). Socioeconomic domains and associations with preterm birth. Social Science and Medicine, 67(8), 1247–1257. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.06.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Miller, C. C. (2015, December 17). Class differences in child-rearing are on the rise. The New York Times.Google Scholar
  96. Millman, M. (1993). Committee on nonitoring access to personal health care services: Washington. DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  97. Miranda, M. L., Kim, D., Reiter, J., Galeano, M. A. O., & Maxson, P. (2009). Environmental contributors to the achievement gap. NeuroToxicology, 30, 1019–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Montez, J. K., & Friedman, E. M. (2015). Educational attainment and adult health: Under what conditions is the association causal? Social Science and Medicine, 127, 1–7. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.12.029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Montgomery, L. E., Kiely, J. L., & Pappas, G. (1996). The effects of poverty, race, and family structure on US children’s health: Data from the NHIS, 1978 through 1980 and 1989 through 1991. American Journal of Public Health, 86(10), 1401–1405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Morenoff, J. D. (2003). Neighborhood mechanisms and the spatial dynamics of birth weight. AJS, 108(5), 976–1017.Google Scholar
  101. National School Lunch Program. (2012). National School Lunch Program. Retrieved from
  102. Navarro, V., & Muntaner, C. (2004). Political and economic determinants of population health and well-being: Controversies and developments. Amityville, NY: Baywood Pub Co.Google Scholar
  103. Ncube, C. N., Enquobahrie, D. A., Albert, S. M., Herrick, A. L., & Burke, J. G. (2016). Association of neighborhood context with offspring risk of preterm birth and low birthweight: A systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies. Social Science and Medicine, 153, 156–164. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.02.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nores, M., Belfield, C. R., Barnett, W. S., & Schweinhart, L. (2005). Updating the economic impacts of the high/scope perry preschool program. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27, 245–261. doi: 10.3102/01623737027003245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Oakes, J. M. (2004). The (mis)estimation of neighborhood effects: Causal inference for a practicable social epidemiology. Social Science and Medicine, 58(10), 1929–1952. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2003.08.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. O’Campo, P., Burke, J. G., Culhane, J., Elo, I. T., Eyster, J., Holzman, C., et al. (2008). Neighborhood deprivation and preterm birth among non-Hispanic Black and White women in eight geographic areas in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167(2), 155–163. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwm277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Olson, L. M., Tang, S.-F. S., & Newacheck, P. W. (2005). Children in the United States with discontinuous health insurance coverage. New England Journal of Medicine, 353(4), 382–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Osypuk, T. L., & Acevedo-Garcia, D. (2010). Beyond individual neighborhoods: A geography of opportunity perspective for understanding racial/ethnic health disparities. Health Place. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.07.002.Google Scholar
  109. Patterson, C. J. (2006). Children of lesbian and gay parents. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(5), 241–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Penchansky, R., & Thomas, J. W. (1981). The concept of access: Definition and relationship to consumer satisfaction. Medical Care, 19(2), 127–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Phelan, J. C., Link, B. G., & Tehranifar, P. (2010). Social conditions as fundamental causes of health inequalities: Theory, evidence, and policy implications. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(Suppl), S28–S40. doi: 10.1177/0022146510383498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Phillips, M. (2011). Parenting, time use, and disparities in academic outcomes. In G. J. Duncan & R. J. Murnane (Eds.), Whither opportunity?: Rising inequality, schools, and children’s life chances. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  113. Quinn, K., Kaufman, J. S., Siddiqi, A., & Yeatts, K. B. (2010). Stress and the city: Housing stressors are associated with respiratory health among low socioeconomic status Chicago children. Journal of Urban Health, 87(4), 688–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Raissian, K. M. (2015). Does unemployment affect child abuse rates? Evidence from New York State. Child Abuse and Neglect, 48, 1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.06.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rajakumar, K., Thomas, S. B., Musa, D., Almario, D., & Garza, M. A. (2009). Racial differences in parents’ distrust of medicine and research. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 163(2), 108–114. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2008.521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Raymond, J., Wheeler, W., & Brown, M. J. (2014). Lead screening and prevalence of blood lead levels in children aged 1–2 years—child blood lead surveillance system, United States, 2002–2010 and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 1999–2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 63(2), 36–42.Google Scholar
  117. Reardon, S. F. (2011). The widening academic achievement gap between rich and poor: New evidence and possible explanations. In G. J. Duncan & R. J. Murnane (Eds.), Whither opportunity?: Rising inequality, schools, and children’s life chances. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  118. Reardon, S. F., & Bischoff, K. (2011). Income inequality and income segregation. AJS; American journal of sociology, 116(4), 489–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Rhee, K. (2008). Childhood overweight and the relationship between parent behaviors, parenting style, and family functioning. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 615(1), 11–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Richards, J. L., Chapple-McGruder, T., Williams, B. L., & Kramer, M. R. (2015). Does neighborhood deprivation modify the effect of preterm birth on children’s first grade academic performance? Social Science and Medicine, 132, 122–131. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.03.032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Saw, A., Berenbaum, H., & Okazaki, S. (2013). Influences of personal standards and perceived parental expectations on worry for Asian American and White American college students. Anxiety Stress Coping, 26(2), 187–202. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2012.668536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Scheffler, R. M., & Brown, T. T. (2008). Social capital, economics, and health: New evidence. Health Economics Policy and Law, 3, 321–331. doi: 10.1017/S1744133108004593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Schempf, A. H., & Kaufman, J. S. (2012). Accounting for context in studies of health inequalities: A review and comparison of analytic approaches. Annals of Epidemiology, 22(10), 683–690. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2012.06.105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sharifi, M., Sequist, T. D., Rifas-Shiman, S. L., Melly, S. J., Duncan, D. T., Horan, C. M., et al. (2016). The role of neighborhood characteristics and the built environment in understanding racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity. Preventive Medicine, 91, 103–109. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.07.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Shen, F. C., Liao, K. Y., Abraham, W. T., & Weng, C. Y. (2014). Parental pressure and support toward Asian Americans’ self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and interests in stereotypical occupations: Living up to parental expectations and internalized stereotyping as mediators. Journal of Counseling Psychology 61(2), 241–252. doi: 10.1037/a0036219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Simpson, L., Owens, P. L., Zodet, M. W., Chevarley, F. M., Dougherty, D., Elixhauser, A., et al. (2005). Health care for children and youth in the United States: Annual report on patterns of coverage, utilization, quality, and expenditures by income. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 5(1), e6–e20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Singh, G. K., & Kogan, M. D. (2007). Widening socioeconomic disparities in US childhood mortality, 1969 2000. American Journal of Public Health, 97(9), 1658–1665. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2006.087320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Skiba, R. J., Michael, R. S., Nardo, A. C., & Peterson, R. L. (2002). The color of discipline: Sources of racial and gender disproportionality in school punishment. Urban Review, 34(4), 317–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Snyder, T. D., & Dillow, S. A. (2015). Digest of education statistics, 2013. Retrieved from
  130. Spelke, B., Zertuche, A. D., & Rochat, R. (2016). Obstetric Provider Maldistribution: Georgia, USA, 2011. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 20(7), 1333–1340. doi: 10.1007/s10995-016-1999-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Stacey, J., & Biblarz, T. J. (2001). (How) does the sexual orientation of parents matter? American Sociological Review, 159-183.Google Scholar
  132. Strickland, B. B., Jones, J. R., Ghandour, R. M., Kogan, M. D., & Newacheck, P. W. (2011). The medical home: Health care access and impact for children and youth in the United States. Pediatrics, 127(4), 604–611. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-3555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Taylor, S. E., Repetti, R. L., & Seeman, T. (1997). Health psychology: What is an unhealthy environment and how does it get under the skin? Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 411–447. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.48.1.411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. The Urban Institute. (2015). Tabulations of the Urban Institute Health Policy Center’s ACS Medicaid/CHIP Eligibility Simulation Model. Retrieved from
  135. Thiede, B. C., & Monnat, S. M. (2016). The Great Recession and America’s geography of unemployment. Demographic Research, 35, 891–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Tucker, J. S., Pollard, M. S., de la Haye, K., Kennedy, D. P., & Green, H. D., Jr. (2013). Neighborhood characteristics and the initiation of marijuana use and binge drinking. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 128(1–2), 83–89. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.08.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Turney, K. (2011). Maternal depression and childhood health inequalities. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52(3), 314–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Turney, K. (2013). Perceived instrumental support and children’s health across the early life course. Social Science and Medicine, 95, 34–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Vos, A. A., Posthumus, A. G., Bonsel, G. J., Steegers, E. A., & Denktas, S. (2014). Deprived neighborhoods and adverse perinatal outcome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 93(8), 727–740. doi: 10.1111/aogs.12430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wald, J., & Losen, D. J. (2003). Defining and redirecting a school-to-prison pipeline. New directions for youth development, 99, 9–15. doi: 10.1002/yd.51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Wang, F., & Luo, W. (2005). Assessing spatial and nonspatial factors for healthcare access: Towards an integrated approach to defining health professional shortage areas. Health Place, 11(2), 131–146. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2004.02.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Weber, M. (1978). Economy and society: An outline of interpretive sociology, California: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  143. Weinreb, L., Wehler, C., Perloff, J., Scott, R., Hosmer, D., Sagor, L., et al. (2002). Hunger: Its impact on children’s health and mental health. Pediatrics, 110(4), e41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wilkinson, R. G., & Pickett, K. E. (2007). The problems of relative deprivation: Why some societies do better than others. Social Science and Medicine, 65(9), 1965–1978. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.05.041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wood, D. L., Valdez, R. B., Hayashi, T., & Shen, A. (1990). Health of homeless children and housed, poor children. Pediatrics, 86(6), 858–866.Google Scholar
  146. Wright, E. O. (Ed.). (2007). Approaches to class analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  147. Ye, J., Leep, C., & Newman, S. (2015). Reductions of budgets, staffing, and programs among local health departments: Results from NACCHO’s economic surveillance surveys, 2009-2013. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 21(2), 126–133. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael R. Kramer
    • 1
  • Eric B. Schneider
    • 2
  • Jennifer B. Kane
    • 3
  • Claire Margerison-Zilko
    • 4
  • Jessica Jones-Smith
    • 5
  • Katherine King
    • 6
  • Pamela Davis-Kean
    • 7
  • Joseph G. Grzywacz
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Economic HistoryLondon School of Economics and Political ScienceLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of SociologyUniversity CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Human MedicineMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  5. 5.Department of International HealthJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  6. 6.Department of Community and Family MedicineDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  7. 7.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  8. 8.Department of Family & Child SciencesFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

Personalised recommendations