Population Research and Policy Review

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 137–156 | Cite as

Black–White Disparities in Adult Mortality: Implications of Differential Record Linkage for Understanding the Mortality Crossover



Mortality rates among black individuals exceed those of white individuals throughout much of the life course. The black–white disparity in mortality rates is widest in young adulthood, and then rates converge with increasing age until a crossover occurs at about age 85 years, after which black older adults exhibit a lower mortality rate relative to white older adults. Data quality issues in survey-linked mortality studies may hinder accurate estimation of this disparity and may even be responsible for the observed black–white mortality crossover, especially if the linkage of surveys to death records during mortality follow-up is less accurate for black older adults. This study assesses black–white differences in the linkage of the 1986–2009 National Health Interview Survey to the National Death Index through 2011 and the implications of racial/ethnic differences in record linkage for mortality disparity estimates. Match class and match score (i.e., indicators of linkage quality) differ by race/ethnicity, with black adults exhibiting less certain matches than white adults in all age groups. The magnitude of the black–white mortality disparity varies with alternative linkage scenarios, but convergence and crossover continue to be observed in each case. Beyond black–white differences in linkage quality, this study also identifies declines over time in linkage quality and even eligibility for linkage among all adults. Although linkage quality is lower among black adults than white adults, differential record linkage does not account for the black–white mortality crossover.


Mortality Race/ethnicity Record linkage Mortality crossover National Health Interview Survey 



An earlier draft of this article was presented at the 2013 Southern Demographic Association meeting in Montgomery, Alabama. Research for this article was supported by training grants from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5 T32 HD007081) and the National Institute on Aging (5 T32 AG000139). Patricia Barnes, Jennifer Parker, and Donna Miller of the National Center for Health Statistics assisted in acquiring a special request file of the National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality File data. Analyses were conducted in the Texas Federal Statistical Research Data Center (RDC) in College Station, Texas, Triangle RDC in Durham, North Carolina, and Missouri RDC in Columbia, Missouri. The research in this article was conducted while the author was a Special Sworn Status researcher of the U.S. Census Bureau at the Center for Economic Studies. Research results and conclusions expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Census Bureau. This article has been screened to ensure that no confidential data are revealed.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of MemphisMemphisUSA

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