Population Research and Policy Review

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 529–552 | Cite as

Transition to First Marriage in Reform-Era Urban China: The Persistent Effect of Education in a Period of Rapid Social Change

  • Felicia Feng Tian


The negative association between education and marriage timing is often explained by an economic independence theory: education provides women with independent economic resources to reject the caregiver role in marriage. However, cross-national evidence shows the importance of cultural and historical continuity in marriage formation. This article examines the relationship between educational attainment and the timing of first marriage in reform-era urban China since the 1980s. Reform-era urban China provides a strong case to examine both theories: it has a strong marriage norm, but it has also experienced a rapid increase in gender inequality in the labor market during the economic reform. Using detailed education and work histories of 3,808 respondents from two waves of the Chinese General Social Survey, this article uses discrete-time hazard regressions to contrast the marriage experience between two cohorts that faced different labor market constraints. The evidence fits better with a path dependence theory. Specifically, the effect of education on marriage timing, for both women and men, is not significantly different between these two cohorts. The results encourage attention to local institutions and local culture in understanding the relationship between conditions in the labor market and marriage formation.


Marriage timing Education Labor market Chinese economic reform Family norms 



I thank S. Philip Morgan for his tireless guidance and support. David Brady, James Moody, Christine Bachrach, Regina S. Baker, Ryan M. Finnigan, Lane Destro, members of Duke Structure Workshop, and the PRPR reviewers offered smart and substantive comments on previous drafts. Jennifer Keane and Oxford copy edited this article. Earlier versions of this article were presented at American Sociological Association and Southern Demographic Association.


  1. Abbasi-Shavazi, M. J., Morgan, S. P., Hossein-Chavoshi, M., & McDonald, P. (2009). Family change and continuity in Iran: Birth control use before first pregnancy. Journal of Marriage and Family, 71, 1309–1324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwal, R. (2002). Marriage law in China revised. China Report, 38(3), 407–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allison, P. D. (1982). Discrete-time methods for the analysis of event histories. Sociological Methodology, 13, 61–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allison, P. D. (1984). Event history analysis: Regression for longitudinal event data. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  5. Allison, P. (1999). Comparing logit and probit coefficients across groups. Sociological Methods and Research, 28(2), 186–208.Google Scholar
  6. Axinn, W. G., & Thorton, A. (1992). The influence of parental resources on the timing of the transition to marriage. Social Science Research, 21(3), 261–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bates, L. M., Maselko, J., & Schuler, S. R. (2007). Women’s education and the timing of marriage and childbearing in the next generation: Evidence from rural Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, 38(2), 101–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Becker, G. S. (1981). A treatise of the family (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Havard University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bhattacharjya, D., Sudarshan, A., Tuljapurkar, S., Shachter, R., & Feldman, M. (2008). How can economic schemes curtail the increasing sex ratio at birth in China. Demographic Research, 19(54), 1831–1850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bian, Y., Logan, J. R., & Shu, X. (2000). Wage and job inequalities in the working lives of men and women in Tianjin. In B. Entwisle & G. Henderson (Eds.), Re-drawing boundaries: Work, households, and gender in China (pp. 111–133). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bianchi, S. M., Milkie, M. A., Sayer, L. C., & Robinson, J. P. (2000). Is anyone doing the housework? Trends in the gender division of household labor. Social Forces, 79(1), 191–228.Google Scholar
  12. Blossfeld, H.-P. (1995). Changes in the process of family formation and women’s growing economic independence: A comparison of nine countries. In H.-P. Blossfeld (Ed.), The new role of women: family formation in modern societies (pp. 3–32). Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
  13. Blossfeld, H.-P., & Huinink, J. (1991). Human capital investments or norms of role transition? How women’s schooling and career affect the process of family formation. American Journal of Sociology, 97(1), 143–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bracher, M., & Santow, G. (1998). Economic independence and union formation in Sweden. Population Studies, 52(3), 275–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cai, Y., & Wang, F. (2011). (Re)emergence of Late Marriage in New Shanghai. Paper presented at the Conference on Marriage in Cosmopolitan China, Hong Kong University, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  16. Cao, Y., & Hu, C.-Y. (2007). Gender and Job mobility in postsocialist China: A longitudinal study of job changes in six coastal cities. Social Forces, 85(4), 1535–1560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carlson, M., Mclanahan, S., & England, P. (2004). Union formation in fragile families. Demography, 41(2), 237–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen, Y., & Li, H. (2009). Mother’s education and child health: Is there a nurturing effect. Journal of Health Economics, 28(2), 413–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cherlin, A. (2012). Goode’s world revolution and family patterns: A reconsideration at fifty years. Population and Development Review, 38(4), 577–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chu, C. Y. C., & Yu, R–. R. (2009). Understanding Chinese families: A comparative study of Taiwan and Southeast China. Cambridge: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Coale, A., Wang, F., Riley, N. E., & De, L. F. (1991). Recent trends in fertility and nuptiality in China. Science, 251(4992), 389–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cohen, P. N., & Wang, F. (2009). The market and gender pay equity: Have Chinese reforms narrowed the gap? In D. S. Davis & W. Feng (Eds.), Creating wealth and poverty in post-socialist China (pp. 37–53). Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Cooke, F. L. (2001). Equal opportunity? The role of legislation and public policies in women’s employment in China. Gender in Management, 16(7/8), 334–348.Google Scholar
  24. Croll, E. J. (1995). Changing identities of Chinese women: Rhetoric, experience and self-perception in 20th-century China. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Davis, K., & Blake, J. (1956). Social structure and fertility: An analytic framework. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 4(3), 211–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dixon, R. B. (1971). Explaining cross-cultural variations in age at marriage and proportions never marrying. Population Studies, 25(2), 215–233.Google Scholar
  27. Dorius, S. F., & Firebaugh, G. (2010). Trends in global gender inequality. Social Forces, 88(5), 1941–1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ebenstein, A., & Leung, S. (2010). Son preference and access to social insurance: Evidence from China’s rural pension program. Population and Development Review, 36(1), 47–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. England, P. (2010). The gender revolution: Uneven and stalled. Gender & Society, 24, 149–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Evans, H. (2010). The gender of communication: changing expectations of mothers and daughters in urban China. The China Quarterly, 204, 980–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fussell, E., & Palloni, A. (2004). Persistent marriage regimes in changing times. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(5), 1201–1213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gaetano, A. M. (2010). Single women in urban China and the “unmarried crisis”. Lund: Centre for East and South-East Asian Studies, Lund University.Google Scholar
  33. Goldscheider, F., Turcotte, P., & Kopp, A. (2001). The changing determinants of women’s first union formation in industrialized countries: The United States, Canada, Italy and Sweden. Genus, LVII(3–4), 107–134.Google Scholar
  34. Goldstein, J. R., & Kenney, C. T. (2001). Marriage delayed or marriage forgone? New Cohort forecasts of first marriage for U.S. women. American Sociological Review, 66(4), 506–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goode, W. J. (1963). World revolution and family patterns. Oxford: Free.Google Scholar
  36. Grossman, M. (2006). Education and nonmarket outcomes. Handbook of the Economics of Education, 1, 577–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gyimah, S. O. (2009). Cohort differences in women’s educational attainment and the transition to first marriage in Ghana. Population Research and Policy Review, 28(4), 455–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hajnal, J. (1982). Two kinds of preindustrial household formation system. Population and Development Review, 8(3), 449–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Han, H. (2010). Trends in educational assortative marriage in China from 1970 to 2000. Demographic Research, 22, 733–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hannum, E. (2005). Market transition, educational disparities, and family strategies in rural China: New evidence on gender stratification and development. Demography, 42(2), 275–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hannum, E., Behrman, J., Wang, M., & Liu, J. (2007). Education in the reform era. In L. Rawski & T. Rawski (Eds.), China’s great economic transformation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Heard, G. (2011). Socioeconomic marriage differentials in Australia and New Zealand. Population and Development Review, 37(1), 125–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hoetker, G. (2004). Confounded coefficients: Accurately comparing logit and probit coefficients across groups. Working Paper.Google Scholar
  44. International Labor Organization. (1988). International standard classification of occupations.Google Scholar
  45. Jacka, T. (1990). Back to the wok: Women and employment in Chinese industry in the 1980s. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, 24, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jennings, E. A., Axinn, W. G., & Ghimire, D. J. (2012). The effect of parents’ attitudes on sons’ marriage timing. American Sociological Review, 77(6), 923–945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jiang, Q., Sánchez-Barricarte, J. J., Li, S., & Feldman, M. W. (2011). Marriage squeeze in China’s future. Asian Population Studies, 7(3), 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jones, G. (2005). The “flight from marriage” in South East and East Asia. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36(1), 93–120.Google Scholar
  49. Jones, G. W. (2007). Delayed marriage and very low fertility in Pacific Asia. Population and Development Review, 33(3), 453–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jones, G. W., & Gubhaju, B. (2009). Factors influencing changes in mean age at first marriage and proportions never marrying in the low-fertility countries of East and Southeast Asia. Asian Population Studies, 5(3), 237–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kalmijn, M., & Luijkx, R. (2005). Has the reciprocal relationship between employment and marriage changed for men? An analysis of the life histories of men born in the Netherlands between 1930 and 1970. Population Studies, 59(2), 211–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lavely, W., Zhenyu, X., Bohua, L., & Freedman, R. (1990). The rise in female education in China: National and regional patterns. The China Quarterly, 121, 61–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lee, C. K. (1998). Gender and the South China miracle: Two worlds of factory women. Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  54. Lee, J., Feng, W., & Ruan, D. (2001). Nuptiality among the Qing nobility: 1640–1900. In Liu, et al. (Eds.), Asian population history (pp. 353–373). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Lee, Y.-J., Parish, W. L., & Willis, R. J. (1994). Sons, daughters, and intergenerational support in Taiwan. American Journal of Sociology, 99, 1010–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lee, J., & Wang, F. (1999). Malthusian models and Chinese realities: The Chinese demographic system 1700–2000. Population and Development Review, 25(1), 33–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lefgren, L., & McIntyre, F. (2006). The relationship between women’s education and marriage outcomes. Journal of Labor Economics, 24(4), 787–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Li, C. (2007a, Feb 13). Single women on rise in Shanghai. China Daily, p. 5.Google Scholar
  59. Li, S. (2007b, October 29–31). Imbalanced sex ratio at birth and comprehensive intervention in China. Paper presented at the 4th Asia Pacific Conference on Reproductive and Sexual Health and Rights, Hyderabad, India.Google Scholar
  60. Li, Y., & Xu, A. (2004). Ze Ou Mo Shi He Xing Bie Yan Jiu – Xi Fang LiLun He Ben Tu Jing Yan Zi Liao De Jie Shi. [Mate Selection and Gender Preference]. Qing Nian Yan Jiu [Youth Studies], 10, 1–11.Google Scholar
  61. Lin, J. Y., Cai, F., & Li, Z. (2003). The China miracle : Development strategy and economic reform. Hong Kong: Published for the Hong Kong Centre for Economic Research and the International Center for Economic Growth by the Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Liu, P.-W., Meng, X., & Zhang, J. (2007). Sectoral gender wage differentials and discrimination in the transitional Chinese economy. Journal of Population Economics, 13(2), 331–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mahoney, J. (2000). Path dependence in historical sociology. Theory and Society, 29(4), 507–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mare, R. D., & Winship, C. (1991). Socioeconomic change and the decline of marriage for blacks and whites. In C. Jencks & P. E. Peterson (Eds.), The Urban Underclass (pp. 175–202). Washington: The Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  65. McDonald, P. (1992). Convergence or Compromise in Historical Family Change? In E. Berquó & P. Xenos (Eds.), Family systems and cultural change (pp. 15–30). Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  66. McDonald, P. (1994). Families in developing countries: Idealized morality and theories of family change. In L.-J. Cho & M. Yada (Eds.), Tradition and change in Asian family (pp. 19–28). Honolulu: East-West Center.Google Scholar
  67. Mensch, B. S., Singh, S., & Casterline, J. B. (2005). Trends in the timing of first marriage among men and women in the developing world. In C. B. Lloyd, J. R. Behrman, N. P. Stromquist, N. P. Stromquist, & B. Cohen (Eds.), The changing transitions to adulthood in developing countries (pp. 118–171). Washington D.C.: The National Academies.Google Scholar
  68. Modell, J., Furstenberg, F. F., & Strong, D. (1978). The timing of marriage in the transition to adulthood: Continuity and change, 1860–1975. American Journal of Sociology, 84, S120–S150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Murnane, R. J. (1981). New evidence on the relationship between mother’s education and children’s cognitive skills. Economics of Education Review, 1(2), 245–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ono, H. (2003). Women’s economic standing, marriage timing, and cross-national contexts of gender. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65, 275–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Oppenheimer, V. K. (1988). A theory of marriage timing. American Journal of Sociology, 94(3), 563–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Oppenheimer, V. K. (1997). Women’s employment and the gain to marriage: The specialization and trading model. Annual Review of Sociology, 23, 431–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Oppenheimer, V. K. (2000). The continuing importance of men’s economic position in marriage formation. In L. Waite, C. Backrack, M. Hindin, E. Thomson, & A. Thorton (Eds.), The ties that bind: Perspective on marriage and cohabitation (pp. 283–301). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  74. Oppenheimer, V. K., Kalmijn, M., & Lim, N. (1997). Men’s career development and marriage timing during a period of rising inequality. Demography, 34, 311–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Parish, W. L., & Busse, S. (2000). Gender and work. In W. Tang & W. L. Parish (Eds.), Chinese urban life under reform: The changing social contract (pp. 209–231). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (1991). How college affects students: Findings and insights from twenty years of research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  77. Peters, H. E. (1988). Retrospective versus panel data in analyzing lifecycle events. Journal of Human Resources, 23(4), 488–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Qian, Y. (2012). Marriage Squeeze for Highly Educated Women? Gender Differences in Assortative Marriage in Urban China. Master Thesis, Ohio State University.Google Scholar
  79. Qian, Z., & Hodson, R. (2011). ‘Sent Down’ in China: Stratification challenged but not denied. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 29(2), 205–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Raymo, J. M. (2003). Educational attainment and the transition to first marriage among Japanese women. Demography, 40(1), 83–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Raymo, J. M., & Iwasawa, M. (2005). Marriage market mismatches in Japan: An alternative view of the relationship between women’s education and marriage. American Sociological Review, 70(5), 801–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ridley, J. C., Bachrach, C. A., & Dawson, D. A. (1979). Recall and reliability of interview data from older women. Journal of Gerontology, 34(1), 99–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Robinson, J. C. (1985). Of women and washing machines: Employment, housework, and the reproduction of motherhood in socialist China. The China Quarterly, 101, 32–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ryder, N. B. (1965). The cohort as a concept in the study of social change. American Sociological Review, 30(6), 843–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sander, W. (1995). Schooling and quitting smoking. Journal of Economics and Statistics, 77(1), 191–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schneider, D. (2011a). Market earnings and household work: New tests of gender performance theory. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73(4), 845–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schneider, D. (2011b). Wealth and the marital divide. American Journal of Sociology, 117(2), 627–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shu, X. (2004). Education and gender egalitarianism: The case of China. Sociology of Education, 77(4), 311–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shu, X., & Bian, Y. (2002). Intercity variation in gender inequalities in China: Analysis of a 1995 national survey. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 19, 269–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis : Modeling change and event occurrence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stockman, N. (1994). Gender inequality and social structure in urban China. Sociology, 28(3), 759–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Summerfield, G. (1994). Economic reforms and the employment of Chinese women. Journal of Economic Issues, 28(3), 715–732.Google Scholar
  93. Sweeney, M. (2002). Two decades of family change: The shifting economic foundations of marriage. American Sociological Review, 67(1), 132–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sweeney, M., & Cancian, M. (2004). The changing importance of white women’s economic prospects for assortative mating. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(4), 1015–1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Thomas, D., Strauss, J., & Henriques, M.-H. (1990). Child survival, height for age and household characteristics in Brazil. Journal of Development Economics, 33(2), 197–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Thornton, A., & Lin, H.-S. (1994). Social change and the family in Taiwan. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  97. Trent, K., & South, S. J. (2011). Too many men? Sex ratios and women’s partnering behavior in China. Social Forces, 90(1), 247–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Verhoeven, W. J., Jansen, W., & Dessens, J. (2005). Income attainment during transformation processes - A meta-analysis of the market transition theory. European Sociological Review, 21(3), 201–226. doi: 10.1093/esr/jci020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Walder, A. G. (1995). Career mobility and the communist political order. American Sociological Review, 60(3), 309–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Walder, A. G. (2003). Elite opportunity in transitional economies. American Sociological Review, 66(4), 899–916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wang, S. (2006, Feb 10). Picky women keep waiting for Mr Right. China Daily online. ( Accessed 19 Oct 2012.
  102. Wang, F., & Yang, Q. (1996). Age at marriage and the first birth interval: The emerging change in sexual behavior among young couples in China. Population and Development Review, 22(2), 299–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Watkins, S. C. (1987). Spinsters. Journal of Family History, 9(4), 310–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Whyte, M. K. (1984). Sexual inequality under socialism: The Chinese case in perspective. In J. L. Watson (Ed.), Class and social stratification in post-revolution China (pp. 198–238). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Willis, R. (1987). What have we learned from the economics of the family? American Economic Review, 77, 68–81.Google Scholar
  106. Wolf, A., & Huang, C.-S. (1980). Marriage and adoption in China: 1845–1945. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  107. Xia, Y. R., & Zhou, Z. G. (2003). The transition of courtship, mate selection, and marriage in China. In R. R. Hamon & B. B. Ingoldsby (Eds.), Mate selection across Cultures (pp. 231–246). California: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Xie, Y., Raymo, J. M., Goyette, K., & Thornton, A. (2003). Economic potential and entry into marriage and cohabitation. Demography, 40(2), 351–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Xu, A. (1997). Shanghai Nv Xing Ze Ou Xing Wei De Xian Zhuang He Bian Qian. [Changes in Shanghai Women’s Mate Selection Criteria]. Fu Nv Yan Jiu Lun Cong [Collection of Women’s Studies], 4, 21–27.Google Scholar
  110. Xu, A. (2004). Nv Xing Hun Yin Jia Ting Guan De Guo Ji Bi Jiao. [An International Comparison of Women’s Marriage and Family Value]. She Hui [Society], 1, 49–53.Google Scholar
  111. Yu, W.-h., Su, K.-h., & Chiu, C.-T. (2012). Sibship characteristics and transition to the first marriage in Taiwan: Explaining gender asymmetries. Population Research and Policy Review, 31, 609–636.Google Scholar
  112. Zhang, J., Han, J., Liu, P.-W., & Zhao, Y. (2008a). Trends in the gender earnings differentials in urban China: 1988–2004. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 61(2), 224–243.Google Scholar
  113. Zhang, Y., Hannum, E., & Wang, M. (2008b). Gender-based employment and income differences in urban China: Considering the contributions of marriage and parenthood. Social Forces, 86(4), 1529–1560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zhang, J., & Sun, P. (2011). When are you going to get married?: Marriage and middle-class women in contemporary urban China. Paper presented at the Conference on Marriage in Cosmopolitan China, Hong Kong University, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  115. Zhang, J., Zhao, Y., Park, A., & Song, X. (2005). Economic returns to schooling in urban China: 1988 to 2001. Journal of Comparative Economics, 33, 730–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zhou, X. (1998). Educational stratification in urban china: 1949–94. Sociology of Education, 71, 199–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zhou, S. (2010). “Sheng Nü “ Yu Xing Bie Tong Zhi. [Surplus Women and Gender Dominance]. Zhong Guo Qing Nian Yan Jiu [Chinese Youth Studies], 5, 14–18.Google Scholar
  118. Zhou, X., & Hou, L. (1999). Children of the cultural revolution: The State and the life course in the People’s Republic of China. American Journal of Sociology, 64(1), 12–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zuo, J., & Bian, Y. (2001). Gendered resources, division of housework, and perceived fairness—a case in urban China. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63(4), 1122–1133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations