Nondrinker Mortality Risk in the United States
- 331 Downloads
The literature has shown that people who do not drink alcohol are at greater risk for death than light to moderate drinkers, yet the reasons for this remain largely unexplained. We examine whether variation in people’s reasons for nondrinking explains the increased mortality. Our data come from the 1988–2006 National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality File (N = 41,076 individuals age 21 and above, of whom 10,421 died over the follow-up period). The results indicate that nondrinkers include several different groups that have unique mortality risks. Among abstainers and light drinkers the risk of mortality is the same as light drinkers for a subgroup who report that they do not drink because of their family upbringing, and moral/religious reasons. In contrast, the risk of mortality is higher than light drinkers for former drinkers who cite health problems or who report problematic drinking behaviors. Our findings address a notable gap in the literature and may inform social policies to reduce or prevent alcohol abuse, increase health, and lengthen life.
KeywordsAlcohol Nondrinkers Abstainers Infrequent drinkers Mortality Survival NHIS
- Adams, P. F., & Hardy, A. M. (1989). Current estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 1988. Vital and Health Statistics, 10(173), 1–257.Google Scholar
- Allison, P. D. (1984). Event history analysis: Regression for longitudinal event data. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Allison, P. D. (2002). Missing data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Ashley, M. J., Rehm, J., Bondy, S., Single, E., & Rankin, J. (2000). Beyond ischemic heart disease: Are there other health benefits from drinking alcohol? Contemporary Drug Problems, 27, 735–777.Google Scholar
- Bien, T. H., & Burge, R. (1990). Smoking and drinking: A review of the literature. The International Journal of the Addictions, 25(12), 1429–1454.Google Scholar
- Clogg, C. C. (1995). Latent class models. In G. Arminger, C. C. Clogg, & M. E. Sobel (Eds.), Handbook of statistical modeling for the social and behavioral sciences (pp. 311–360). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
- DiFranza, J. R., & Guerrera, M. P. (1990). Alcoholism and smoking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 51(2), 130–135.Google Scholar
- English, D. R., Holman, C. D. J., Milne, E., Winter, M. G., Hulse, G. K., Bower, C. I., et al. (1995). The quantification of drug caused morbidity and mortality in Australia. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Human Services and Health.Google Scholar
- Goldberg, I. J., Mosca, L., Piano, M. R., & Fisher, E. A. (2001). Wine and your heart: A science advisory for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Council on Cardiovascular Nursing of the American Heart Association. Circulation, 103, 472–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hansel, B., Thomas, F., Pannier, B., Bean, K., Kontush, K., Chapman, M. J., et al. (2010). Relationship between alcohol intake, health and social status and cardiovascular risk factors in the urban Paris-IIe-De-France cohort: Is the cardioprotective action of alcohol a myth? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 64, 561–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Magidson, J., & Vermunt, J. K. (2004). Latent class analysis. In D. Kaplan (Ed.), The Sage handbook of quantitative methodology for the social sciences (pp. 175–198). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Miller-Tutzauer, C. M., Leonard, K. E., & Windle, M. (1991). Marriage and alcohol use: A longitudinal study of ‘maturing out’. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 52(5), 434–440.Google Scholar
- Miniño, A. M., Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., & Kochanek, K. D. (2011). Deaths: Final data for 2008. National Vital Statistics Reports, 59(10).Google Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus user’s guide: Statistical analysis with latent variables (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). (1989). Public use data tape documentation. Part II—Interviewer’s manual, HIS-100. National Health Interview Survey, 1988. Hyattsville, MD. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/pub/Health_Statistics/NCHS/Dataset_Documentation/NHIS/1988/frmanual.pdf. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
- National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). (2010). Comparative analysis of the NHIS public-use and restricted-use linked mortality files: 2010 public-use data release. Hyattsville, MD. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/datalinkage/nhis_mort_compare_2010_final.pdf. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
- National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). (2011a). Death in the United States, 2009. NCHS Data Brief, 64, 1–8.Google Scholar
- National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). (2011b). Deaths: Preliminary data for 2009. National Vital Statistics Reports, 59(4), 1–51.Google Scholar
- National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). (2012). National Health Interview Survey brochure. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhis/brochure2010January.pdf. Accessed May 30, 2012.
- National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). (2003). State of the science report on the effects of moderate drinking. http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/ModerateDrinking-03.htm. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
- Nusbaumer, M. R. (1981). Religious affiliation and abstinence: A fifteen-year change. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 42(1), 127–131.Google Scholar
- Pearl, R. (1926). Alcohol and longevity. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
- Ridolfo, B., & Stevenson, C. (2001). The quantification of drug-caused mortality and morbidity in Australia 1998. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.Google Scholar
- Rogers, R. G., & Crimmins, E. M. (Eds.). (2011). International handbook of adult mortality. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Rogers, R. G., Hummer, R. A., & Nam, C. B. (2000). Living and dying in the USA. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Schiller, J. S., Lucas, J. W., Ward, B. W., & Peregoy, J. A. (2012). Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010. Vital Health Statistics, 10(252), 1–207.Google Scholar
- Schoenborn, C. A. (1991). Exposure to alcoholism in the family: United States, 1988. Advance Data, 205, 1–13.Google Scholar
- StataCorp. (2009). Stata statistical software: Release 11. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). (2010). Dietary guidelines for Americans, 2010 (7th ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Available at http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
- Waite, L. J. (2006). Marriage and family. In D. L. Poston & M. Micklin (Eds.), Handbook of population (pp. 87–108). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (2007). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, tenth revision. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar