Population Research and Policy Review

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 243–260 | Cite as

Demographic Transitions and Changes in the Living Arrangements of Children: The Netherlands 1850–2010

  • Frans van Poppel
  • Niels Schenk
  • Ruben van Gaalen
Article

Abstract

The transformation of Europe’s demographic regime over the past two centuries has led to considerable changes in the living arrangements of children. We study long-term changes, making use of three datasets covering the living arrangements of children born between 1850 and 1993 in the Netherlands: a historical national sample of children born between 1850 and 1922, a retrospective survey covering children born between 1923 and 1985, and data from the national population registry relating to children born between 1986 and 1993. We describe the changes in terms of whether fathers, mothers, and stepparents lived with these children at birth and at age 15. We observe a massive increase in the percentage of children growing up in a complete family between the 1850–1879 cohort and the mid-twentieth century cohorts and a return to nineteenth-century conditions in the most recent birth cohort. Time spent in a complete family increased continuously from the mid-nineteenth century on, to decrease again from the 1960s on.

Keywords

Living arrangements Family structure Children Netherlands Nineteenth and twentieth centuries Demographic transition 

References

  1. Albrecht, C., & Teachman, J. D. (2003). Childhood living arrangements and the risk of premarital intercourse. Journal of Family Issues, 24(7), 867–894.Google Scholar
  2. Allan, G. A., Hawker, S., & Crow, G. (2001). Family diversity and change in Britain and Western Europe. Journal of Family Issues, 22, 819–837.Google Scholar
  3. Alter, G. (1988). Family and the female life course: The women of Verviers, Belgium, 1849–1880. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  4. Amato, P. R., & Keith, B. (1991). Parental divorce and the well-being of children: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 26–46.Google Scholar
  5. Andersson, G. (2002). Children’s experiences of family disruption and family formation: Evidence from 16 FFS countries. Demographic Research, 7(7), 343–364.Google Scholar
  6. Aughinbaugh, A., Pierret, C. R., & Rothstein, D. S. (2005). The impact of family structure transitions on youth achievement: Evidence from the children of the NLSY79. Demography, 42(3), 447–468.Google Scholar
  7. Bakker, B. F. M. (2002). Statistics Netherlands’ approach to social statistics: The social statistical dataset. OECD Statistics Newsletter, 11, 4–6.Google Scholar
  8. Bakker, B. F. M. (2008). De stand van het sociaal statistisch bestand. Bevolkingstrends, 56(2), 14–18.Google Scholar
  9. Beck, U., & Beck-Gernsheim, E. (Eds.). (1994). Riskante Freiheiten. Individualisierung in modernen Gesellschaften. [Precarious freedoms. Individualization in modern societies]. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag.Google Scholar
  10. Bengtsson, V. L. (2001). Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational bonds. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 1–16.Google Scholar
  11. Blossfeld, H.-P., & Rohwer, G. (2002). Techniques of event history modelling. New approaches to causal analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  12. Bras, H., Liefbroer, A. C., & Elzinga, C. H. (2010). Standardization of pathways to adulthood? an analysis of Dutch cohorts born between 1850 and 1900. Demography, 47(4), 1013–1034.Google Scholar
  13. Cassidy, J. (1999). The nature of the child’s ties. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment. Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 3–20). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  14. Chase-Landale, P. L., & Cherlin, J. (1995). The long-term effects of parental divorce on the mental health of young adults: A developmental perspective. Child Development, 66(6), 1614–1635.Google Scholar
  15. Cherlin, A. J. (1992). Marriage, Divorce, Remarriage. Revised and enlarged edition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Coontz, S. (2000). Historical perspectives on family studies. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 283–297.Google Scholar
  17. Courgeau, D. (1992). Impact of response errors on event history analysis. Population: An English Selection, 4, 97–110.Google Scholar
  18. Damsma, D. (1993). Het Hollandse huisgezin (1500-heden). Utrecht: Kosmos.Google Scholar
  19. De Leeuw, E. D., & De Heer, W. (2001). Trends in household survey nonresponse: A longitudinal and international comparison. In R. M. Groes, D. A. Dillman, J. L. Eltinge, & R. J. A. Little (Eds.), Survey nonresponse (pp. 41–54). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  20. Dupâquier, J., Helin, E., Laslett, P., Livi-Bacci, M., & Sogner, S. (Eds.). (1981). Marriage and remarriage in populations of the past. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  21. Dykstra, P. A., Kalmijn, M., Knijn, T. C. M., Komter, A. E., Liefbroer, A. C., & Mulder, C. H. (2005). Codebook of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study, A multi-actor, multi-method panel study on solidarity in family relationships. Wave 1 (No. NKPS Working Paper No. 4). The Hague: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute.Google Scholar
  22. Faron, O. (2001). Les Enfants du deuil. Orphelins et pupilles de la nation de la première guerre mondiale (1914–1941). Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
  23. Fildes, V. A. (1988). Wet Nursing: A History from Antiquity to the Present. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  24. Fourastié, J. (1959). De la vie traditionnelle a la vie “tertiaire”. Recherches sur le calendrier démographique de l’homme moyen. Population (French Edition), 14(3), 417–432.Google Scholar
  25. Fukuyama, F. (1999). The great disruption: Human nature and the reconstitution of social order. London: Profile Books.Google Scholar
  26. Glasner, T., & Van Der Vaart, W. (2009). Applications of calendar instruments in social surveys: A review. Quality & Quantity, 43(3), 333–349.Google Scholar
  27. Goldin, C. (2006). The quiet revolution that transformed women’s employment, education, and family. American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 96, 1–21.Google Scholar
  28. Griffith, J. D. (1980). Economy, family, and remarriage. Theory of remarriage and application to preindustrial England. Journal of Family Issues, 1, 479–496.Google Scholar
  29. Hansagi, H., Brandt, L., & Andréasson, S. (2000). Parental divorce: Psychological well-being, mental health and mortality during youth and young adulthood. European Journal of Public Health, 10, 86–92.Google Scholar
  30. Hareven, T. K. (2000). Families, History, and Social Change Life-course and cross-cultural perspectives. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  31. Hayward, M. D., & Gorman, B. K. (2004). The long arm of childhood: The influence of early-life conditions on men’s mortality. Demography, 41(1), 87–107.Google Scholar
  32. Heiland, F., & Liu, S. H. (2006). Family structure and wellbeing of out-of-wedlock children: The significance of the biological parents’ relationship. Demographic Research, 15(4), 61–104.Google Scholar
  33. Hernandez, D., & Myers, D. (1993). America’s children: Resources from family, government and the economy. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  34. Heuveline, P., & Timberlake, J. M. (2002). Toward a child-centered life course perspective on family structures: Multi-state early life tables using FFS data. In E. Klijzing & M. Corijn (Eds.), Dynamics of fertility and partnership in Europe: Insights and lessons from comparative research (Vol. II, pp. 175–191). Geneva, NY: United Nations.Google Scholar
  35. Hofferth, S. (1985). Children’s life course: Family structure and living arrangements in cohort perspective. In G. J. Elder (Ed.), Life course dynamics: Trajectories and transitions, 1968–1980 (pp. 75–112). Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Impicciatore, R., & Billari, F. (2011). MAPLES: A general method for the estimation of age profiles from standard demographic surveys (with an application to fertility). Demographic Research, 24(29), 719–748.Google Scholar
  37. Janssens, A. (1993). Family and social change. The household as a process in an industrializing community. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Janssens, A. (1997). The rise and decline of the male breadwinner family? An overview of the debate. International Review of Social History, 42(Supplement 5), 1–23.Google Scholar
  39. Kachadourian, L. K., Fincham, F., & Davila, J. (2004). The tendency to forgive in dating and married couples: The role of attachment and relationship satisfaction. Personal Relationships, 11, 373–393.Google Scholar
  40. Kertzer, D. (1985). Future directions in historical household studies. Journal of Family History, 10, 98–107.Google Scholar
  41. King, M. (1990). All in the family? Historical Methods, 23(1), 32–41.Google Scholar
  42. Knotter, A., & Meijer, A. C. (1995). De gemeentelijke bevolkingsregisters, 1850–1920. In Broncommentaren (Vol. 2, pp. 79–118). Den Haag: Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis.Google Scholar
  43. Kobak, R. R., & Sceery, A. (1988). Attachment in late adolescence: Working models, affect regulation, and representations of self and others. Child Development, 59, 135–146.Google Scholar
  44. Kok, J., van Poppel, F., & Kruse, E. (1997). Mortality among illegitimate children in mid-nineteenth century The Hague. In C. A. Corsini & P. P. Viazzo (Eds.), The decline of infant and child mortality. The European experience: 1750–1990 (pp. 193–211). The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.Google Scholar
  45. Leridon, H., & Villeneuve-Gokalp, C. (1994). Constance et inconstances de la famille: Biographies familiales des couples et des enfants. Paris: Presses universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  46. Lesthaeghe, R. (1995). The second demographic transition in Western countries: An interpretation. In K. O. Mason & A.-M. Jensen (Eds.), Gender and family change in industrialized countries (pp. 17–62). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Lynch, K. A. L. (2003). Individuals, families, and communities in Europe, 1200–1800: The urban foundations of Western society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Mandemakers, K. (2001). Historical sample of the Netherlands HSN. Historical Social Research, 26(4), 179–190.Google Scholar
  49. Manzoni, A., Vermunt, J. K., Luijkx, R., & Muffels, R. (2010). Memory bias in retrospectively collected employment careers: A model-based approach to correct for measurement error. Sociological Methodology, 40(1), 39–73.Google Scholar
  50. Marris, P. (1991). The social construction of uncertainty. In C. M. Parkes, J. Stevenson-Hinde, & P. Marris (Eds.), Attachment across the lifecycle (pp. 77–90). London/New York: Tavistock/Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. McLanahan, S. (2004). Diverging destinies: How children are faring under the second demographic transition. Demography, 41(4), 607–627.Google Scholar
  52. McLanahan, S. S., & Sandefur, G. D. (1994). Growing up with a single parent: What hurts? what helps?. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Meijer, A. C. (1983). De negentiende-eeuwse “papieren mensch”, een onderzoek naar het Amsterdams bevolkingsregister als bron voor historici. Nederlands Archievenblad, 87(4), 371–395.Google Scholar
  54. Mikulincer, M., Shaver, P. R., & Pereg, D. (2003). Attachment theory and affect regulation: the dynamics, development, and cognitive consequences of attachment-related strategies. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 77–102.Google Scholar
  55. Modin, B. (2003). Born out of wedlock and never married—it breaks a mans heart. Social Science and Medicine, 57, 487–501.Google Scholar
  56. Murphy, M. (2011). Long-term effects of the demographic transition on family and kinship networks in Britain. Population and Development Review, 37(Supplement), 55–80.Google Scholar
  57. Pierrard, A. (2010). Evolution du calendrier de l’expérience de la mort au sein de la famille. Louvain-la-Neuve: Centre de recherche en démographie et sociétiés, Université Catholique de Louvain.Google Scholar
  58. Poulain, M., Riandey, B., & Firdion, J. M. (1992). Data from a life history survey and from the Belgian population register: A comparison. Population: An English Selection, 4, 77–96.Google Scholar
  59. Raikes, H. A., & Thompson, R. A. (2008). Attachment security and parenting quality predict children’s problem-solving, attributions, and loneliness with peers. Attachment & Human Development, 10, 319–344.Google Scholar
  60. Reher, D. S. (2004). The demographic transition revisited as a global process. Population Space and Place, 10, 19–41.Google Scholar
  61. Ruggles, S. (1986). Availability of kin and the demography of historical family structure. Historical Methods, 19(3), 93–102.Google Scholar
  62. Ruggles, S. (1990). Family demography and family history. Historical Methods, 23(1), 22–31.Google Scholar
  63. Ruggles, S. (2012). The future of historical family demography. Annual Review of Sociology, 38(August), 423–441.Google Scholar
  64. Scanzoni, J. (2001). From the normal family to alternate families to the quest for diversity with interdependence. Journal of Family Issues, 22, 819–837.Google Scholar
  65. Schama, S. (1987). The embarrassment of riches. An interpretation of Dutch culture in the Golden Age. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  66. Segalen, M. (1981). Mentalité populaire et remariage en Europe occidentale. In J. Dupâquier, E. Helin, P. Laslett, M. Livi-Bacci, & S. Sogner (Eds.), Marriage and remarriage in populations of the past (pp. 67–77). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  67. Shorter, E., Knodel, J., & Van de Walle, E. (1971). The decline of non-marital fertility in Europe. Population Studies, 24, 375–393.Google Scholar
  68. Smith, J. E. (1987). The computer simulation of kin sets and kin counts. In J. T. Bongaarts, T. Burch, & K. W. Wachter (Eds.), Family Demography: Methods and their application (pp. 249–266). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  69. Smith, R. M. (2000). Simulating the past: SOCSIM and CAMSIM and their applications in family and demographic history. In T. J. Coppock (Ed.), Information technology and the scholarly disciplines (pp. 95–106). Oxford: British Academy.Google Scholar
  70. Sobotka, T., & Toulemon, L. (2008). Overview Chapter 4: Changing family and partnership behaviour: Common trends and persistent diversity across Europe. Demographic Research, 19(6), 85–138.Google Scholar
  71. SRB Documentary LLC. (2008). Demographic winter—The decline of the Human Family.Google Scholar
  72. Teachman, J. D. (2004). The childhood living arrangements of children and the characteristics of their marriages. Journal of Family Issues, 25(1), 86–111.Google Scholar
  73. Therborn, G. (2007). Is there a future for the family? Public policy research, 14(1), 41–46.Google Scholar
  74. Thornton, A. (2001). The developmental paradigm, reading history sideways, and family change. Demography, 38(4), 449–465.Google Scholar
  75. Van de Kaa, D. J. (1987). Europe’s second demographic transition. Population Bulletin, 42(1), 1–59.Google Scholar
  76. Van der Woude, A. M. (1972). Variations in the size and structure of the household in the United Provinces of the Netherlands in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In P. Laslett & R. Wall (Eds.), Household and family in past time (pp. 299–318). London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  77. van Gaalen, R. I., & van Poppel, F. (2007). Kinderen en de veranderingen in de gezinsstructuur in de afgelopen anderhalve eeuw. In T. Van der Lippe, P. A. Dykstra, G. Kraaykamp, & J. Schippers (Eds.), De maakbaarheid van de levensloop (pp. 21–42). Assen: Van Gorcum.Google Scholar
  78. van Gaalen, R., & van Poppel, F. (2009). Long-term changes in the living arrangements of children in the Netherlands. Journal of Family Issues, 30(5), 653–669.Google Scholar
  79. van Poppel, F. (1989). Urban-rural versus regional differences in demographic behavior. The Netherlands, 1850–1960. Journal of Urban History, 15(4), 363–398.Google Scholar
  80. van Poppel, F. (1995). Widows, widowers and remarriage. Population Studies, 49(3), 421–442.Google Scholar
  81. van Poppel, F. (1998). Nineteenth-century remarriage patterns in the Netherlands. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 28(3), 343–383.Google Scholar
  82. van Poppel, F., Van Dalen, H. P., & Walhout, E. (2009). Diffusion of a social norm: tracing the emergence of the housewife in the Netherlands, 1812–1922. Economic History Review, 62(1), 99–127.Google Scholar
  83. van Poppel, F., & van Gaalen, R. (2008). The presence of parents and childhood survival: The passage of social time and differences by social class. In T. Bengtsson & G. P. Mineau (Eds.), Kinship and demographic behavior in the past (pp. 105–134). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  84. Watkins, S. C., Menken, J. A., & Bongaarts, J. (1987). Demographic foundations of family change. American Sociological Review, 52, 346–358.Google Scholar
  85. Willemen, A. M., Schuengel, C., & Koot, H. M. (2009). Physiological regulation of stress in referred adolescents: The role of the parent-adolescent relationship. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 482–490.Google Scholar
  86. Zhao, Z. (1996). The demographic transition in Victorian England and changes in English kinship networks. Continuity and Change, 11, 243–272.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frans van Poppel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Niels Schenk
    • 3
  • Ruben van Gaalen
    • 4
  1. 1.Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI)The HagueThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of SociologyErasmus University RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Statistics NetherlandsThe HagueThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations