Schools, Neighborhoods and Selection: Outcomes Across Metropolitan Los Angeles
- 594 Downloads
What is the relationship between school segregation and neighborhood segregation across school districts in Los Angeles County, and are school district outcomes on reading and mathematics scores related to levels of school segregation across these districts? We compute segregation scores using US tract level data for 2000 and use reading and mathematics scores from California State tests. Data from the Los Angeles family and neighborhood survey are used to track individual residential changes and differences in the associated Woodcock Johnson scores. We show that there is a close link between levels of school segregation and neighborhood segregation and that many suburban school districts are relatively integrated across both neighborhoods and schools. When we examine average school district outcomes on reading and mathematics scores we do not find any relationship with levels of segregation. At the same time there is clear evidence of spatial sorting with poorer and lower scoring children moving into school districts (or zones with poorer achieving schools). The multi-level models of segregation and achievement show that the variance in achievement levels across districts is significantly greater than across schools within districts.
KeywordsSegregation Schools Neighborhoods Selectivity
- Armor, D. (1995). Forced justice: School desegregation and the law. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Black, D. (2008). The uncertain future of school desegregation and the importance of goodwill, good sense and a misguided decision. Catholic University Law Review, 57, 947–990.Google Scholar
- Clark, W. A. V. (2002) School desegregation and demographic change. In C. Rossell, D. Armor, & H. Walberg (Eds.), School desegregation in the 21st Century (pp. 119–145). New York: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
- Coleman, J. S., Campbell, E., Mood, A., Hobson, C., McPartland, J., Weinfeld, F., & York, R. (1966). Equality of educational opportunity. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- Finney, N., & Simpson, L. (2009). Sleepwalking into segregation: Challenging the myths about race and migration. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
- Frankenburg, E., Lee, C., & Orfield, G. (2003). A multiracial society with segregated schools: Are we losing the dream? Cambridge, MA: The Civil Rights Project, Harvard University.Google Scholar
- Freeman v Pitts (1992). 118 l. Ed 2nd 108.Google Scholar
- Harris, R., Johnston, R. J., & Burgess, S. M. (2007). Neighborhoods, ethnicity and school choice: Developing a statistical framework for geodemographic analysis. Population Research and Policy Review, 26, 553–579.Google Scholar
- Ledwith, V., & Clark, W. A. V. (2008). The effect of the residential mosaic and white flight on public school composition: Evidence from Los Angeles County. Urban Geography, 28, 1–20.Google Scholar
- Lee, V., & Burkam, D. (2002). Inequality at the starting gate: Social background differences in achievement as children begin school. Washington: Economic Policy Institute.Google Scholar
- Los Angeles family and neighborhood survey. (2001). Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA. Retrieved from http://www.lasurvey.rand.org.
- Nelson, E. (2009). Examining the costs of diversity. University of Miami Law Review, 63, 577–603.Google Scholar
- Orfield, G. (1978). Must we bus?. Washington, DC: Brookings Foundation.Google Scholar
- Orfield, G., & Monfort, F. (1992). The status of school desegregation: The next generation. Alexandria, VA: National School Boards Assn.Google Scholar
- Parents v Seattle School District No. 1. (2007). 551U.S. 701, 2007.Google Scholar
- Reynolds, A., Chen C., & Herbers, J. (2009). School mobility and educational success: A research synthesis and evidence on prevention. Paper at the Workshop on the Impact of Mobility and Change on the lives of Young Children. National Research Council, June 2009, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Rossell, C. (1990). The carrot of the stick for school desegregation policy. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 25, 474–499.Google Scholar
- Rossell, C. (1995). Controlled choice desegregation plans: Not enough choice and too much control. Urban Affairs Review, 31, 43–76.Google Scholar
- Rossell, C., Armor, D., & Walberg H. (2002). School desegregation in the 21st century (pp. 119–145). New York: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
- Shaw, T. (2007). In landmark ruling supreme court strikes down voluntary desegregation in public schools, June 29, 2007 (www.democracynow.org).
- Sibieta, L., Chowdry, H., & Muriel, A. (2008). Level playing field. The implications of school funding. London: CfBT Education Trust (www.cfbt.com).
- Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
- Yinger, J. (1995). Closed doors, opportunities lost. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar