Individual and Contextual Correlates of Economic Difficulties in Old Age in Europe
- 205 Downloads
With data drawn from the second public release version of the “Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe” (SHARE), we scrutinize individual and contextual (regional) correlates of economic difficulties among older Europeans, aged 65 or more. A logistic multi-level regression model with random intercept shows that the risk of being relatively poor varies considerably among the aged. We verified that the factors affecting poverty in each area are not merely the weighted sum of the effect of the more disadvantaged people within the same area, which also exists: poverty appears also significantly influenced by the specific context of residence.
KeywordsPoor elderly Europe Multilevel approach
Financial support from the UE—Sixth Framework Programme: “Major Ageing and Gender Issues in Europe—MAGGIE” (Contract no.: CIT5—028571) and from the Italian Ministry of University and Scientific Research (MiUR) is gratefully acknowledged. We thank Elena Pirani (University of Florence), Giambattista Salinari (University of Florence), Silvana Salvini (University of Florence), Maria Letizia Tanturri (University of Pavia), as well as two anonymous reviewers of this journal for their comments on earlier drafts. We are also indebted with Omar Paccagnella (University of Padua) for useful technical suggestions.
- Agresti, A. (2002). Categorical data analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Avramov, D. (2002). People, demography and social exclusion. Population Studies, 37.Google Scholar
- Börsch-Supan, A. (2007). European welfare state regimes and their generosity towards the elderly. Economics working paper archive 479. http://www.levy.org/pubs/wp_479.pdf.
- Börsch-Supan, A., Brugiavini, A., Jürges, H., Mackenbach, J., Siegrist, J., & Weber, G. (Eds.). (2005). Health, ageing and retirement in Europe—first results from the survey of health, ageing and retirement in Europe. Mannheim: MEA.Google Scholar
- Brandolini, A. (2007, April). Measurement of income distribution in supranational entities: The case of the European Union, Banca d’Italia. Temi di discussione del Servizio Studi, n. 623.Google Scholar
- Caldwell, J. C. (1982). Theory of fertility decline. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- De Santis, G., Seghieri, C., & Tanturri, M. L. (2005). The economic well being of older Europeans. WP 2005/02. Department of Statistics “G. Parenti”.http://www.ds.unifi.it/ricerca/pubblicazioni/working_papers/2005/wp2005_02.pdf.
- De Santis, G., Seghieri, C., & Tanturri, M. L. (2008). Economic well-being in old age in Italy: Does having children make a difference? Genus, 64(1–2), 75–99.Google Scholar
- Dewilde, C. (2006, September). Multidimensional poverty in Europe: Individual and institutional determinants. OASES WP.Google Scholar
- Egidi, V. (2003). Health status of older people. Genus, 59(1), 169–200.Google Scholar
- Egidi, V., Salvatore, M. A., & Spizzichino, D. (2007). The perception of health: Relevance and dimensions. In Proceedings of the 2007 intermediate conference of the Italian Statistical Society “Risk and Prediction”, 6–8 June 2007, Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia.Google Scholar
- Egidi, V., & Spizzichino, D. (2006). Perceived health and mortality: A multidimensional analysis of ECHP Italian data. Genus, 61(3–4), 135–154.Google Scholar
- Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). Three worlds of welfare capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
- Esping-Andersen, G. (2003). A welfare state for the 21st century. In A. Giddens (Ed.), The global third way debate (pp. 134–146). Oxford: Polity.Google Scholar
- Fahey, T., Whelan, C. T., & Maître, B. (2005). First European quality of life survey: Income inequalities and deprivation, European foundation for the improvement of living and working conditions. http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/pubdocs/2005/93/en/1/ef0593en.pdf.
- Gaymu, J., Festy, P., Poulain, M., & Beets, G. (Eds.). (2008). Future elderly living conditions in Europe (p. 162). Paris, INED, Les cahiers de l’INED.Google Scholar
- Grossman, N. (1982). Government and health outcomes. American Economic Review, 72(2), 191–195.Google Scholar
- Hadley, J. (1992). More medical care, better health. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press.Google Scholar
- Hallberg, D. (2006). Cross-national differences in income poverty among Europe’s 50+, working paper 2006: 14, Department of Economics, Uppsala University.Google Scholar
- Kurz, K., & Blossfeld, H. P. (2004). Home ownership & social inequality in comparative perspective. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Légaré, J., & Martel, L. (2003). Living arrangements of older persons in the early ninety’s: An international comparison. Genus, 59(1), 85–103.Google Scholar
- Plotnick, R. D. (2007). The effect of childlessness on the economic status of elders. In Paper presented at the 2007 meeting of the Population Association of America, 29–31 March 2007, New York City, U.S.Google Scholar
- Rabe-Hesketh, S., Skrondal, A., & Pickles, A. (2004). Gllamm manual. U.C. Berkeley Division of Biostatistics, Working paper series (p. 160).Google Scholar
- Regnerus, M., Smith, Ch., & Sikkink, D. (1998). Who gives to the poor? The influence of religious tradition and political location on the personal generosity of Americans towards the poor. Journal of Religious Research, 36, 168–180.Google Scholar
- Smeeding, T. (2003). Income maintenance in old age: Current status and future prospects for rich countries. Genus, 59(1), 51–83.Google Scholar
- Snijders, T. A. B., & Bosker, R. J. (1999). Multilevel analysis. An introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Testa, M. R., & Grilli, L. (2006). The influence of childbearing regional contexts on ideal family size in Europe. Population, 61(1–2), 109–138.Google Scholar
- Waite, L. J. (2004). Introduction: The demographic faces of the elderly. Population and Development Review, 30: Supplement: Aging, Health, and Public Policy, 3–16.Google Scholar