Fertility Timing of Unmarried and Married Mothers: Evidence on Variation Across U.S. Cities from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study
- 127 Downloads
In this paper, we examine the determinants of fertility timing of unmarried and married mothers using a rich new birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, drawn from 20 medium and large U.S. cities. We find considerable variation in the time to next birth among comparable mothers who live in different cities. Some of this variation is explained by variation in labor markets, housing costs and availability, and welfare policies. City variation is particularly important for unmarried women who already have two or more children, whose fertility is more sensitive to these contextual variables than is the fertility of married women, or unmarried women with just one child.
KeywordsFertility timing U.S. city variation in fertility Policies and fertility
- Adsera, A. (2005). Where are the babies? Labor market conditions and fertility in Europe. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper No. 1576.Google Scholar
- Breslow, N. (1974). Covariance analysis of censored survival data. Biometrika, 30, 89–99.Google Scholar
- Butz, W., & Ward, M. P. (1979). Labor markets and fertility: A demographically disaggregate model of US postwar experience. Santa Monica: RAND.Google Scholar
- Committee on Ways and Means. (2004). 2004 Green book. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- Curtis, M. A. (2007). Subsidized housing, housing prices and the living arrangements of unmarried mothers. Housing Policy Debate, 18(1), 145–170.Google Scholar
- Fairlie, R., & London, R. A. (1997). The effect of incremental benefit levels on births to AFDC recipients. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 16(4), 575–597. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6688(199723)16:4<575::AID-PAM4>3.0.CO;2-D.Google Scholar
- Hotz, J. V., Klerman, J. A., & Willis, R. J. (1997). The economics of fertility in developed countries. In M. R. Rosenzweig & O. Stark (Eds.), Handbook of population and family economics, Vol. 1, Part 1. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Leland, J. (2008, February 1). From the housing market to the maternity ward. New York Times.Google Scholar
- McLanahan, S., & Sandefur, G. (1994). Growing up with a single parent. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Moffit, R. A. (1998). The effect of welfare on marriage and fertility: What do we know and what do we need to know?” In R. A. Moffitt (ed.), The effect of welfare on the family and reproductive behavior. National Research Council.Google Scholar
- Moffitt, R. A. (2005). Welfare benefits database. Department of Economics, Johns Hopkins University. Available from: http://www.econ.jhu.edu/People/Moffitt/DataSets.html.
- O’Flaherty, B. (2005). City economics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Olsen, E. O. (2002). Housing programs for low-income households. National Bureau of Economic Research. Working paper 8208.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2005). A picture of subsidized households—1998. http://www.huduser.org/datasets/assthsg/statedata98/. Last modified 3/31/05.
- U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2006). Low income housing tax credits. http://www.huduser.org/datasets/lihtc.html. Last modified 10/18/06.