Anderson, R. N., & Rosenberg, H. M. (1998a). Report on the Second Workshop on Age Adjustment. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Statistics, 4(30).
Anderson, R. N., & Rosenberg, H. M. (1998b). Age standardization of death rates: Implementation of the Year 2000 Standard. National Center for Health Statistics. National Vital Statistics Reports, 47(3).
Beale, C. (2001). Measuring rurality: Rural–Urban Continuum Codes. US Department of Agriculture website (Briefing Room, Economic Research Service). Retrieved 9 September 2006 from: http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/rurality/RuralUrbCon/
Belsley, D. A., Kuh, E., & Welsch, R. E. (1980). Regression diagnostics: Identifying influential data and sources of collinearity
. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
Berliant, M., & Zenou, Y. (1995). Labour specialization and city formation. Centre for Economic Policy Research, Discussion Paper: 1270. London, UK.
Berry, B. (1962). Cities as systems within systems of cities. Papers and Proceedings of the Regional Science Association, 13
, 147–164.Google Scholar
Britnell, R. H. (2001). Specialization of work in England, 1100–1300. Economic History Review, 54
(1), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Butler, M. A., & Beale, C. A. (1994). Rural-Urban Continuum Codes for Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Counties, 1993. Agriculture and Rural Economy Division, Economic Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. AGES 9425.
Christaller, W. (1966). Central places in southern Germany. Translated from Die zentralen Orte in Süddeutschland (1933), (C. W. Baskin, translator). Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall.
Clifford, W. B., & Brannon, Y. S. (1985). Rural–urban differences in mortality. Rural Sociology, 50
, 210–224.Google Scholar
Clifford, W. B., Miller, M. K., & Stokes, C. S. (1986). Rural-urban differences in mortality in the United States, 1970–1980. In D. Jahn, J. W. Johnson & R. C. Wimberley (Eds.), New dimensions in rural policy: Building upon our heritage
(pp. 63–70). Washington: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Committee on Health & Behavior: Research, Practice, & Policy Board on Neuroscience & Behavioral Health (2001). Health and behavior: The interplay of biological, behavioral, and societal influences. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Cossman, R. E., Blanchard, T., James, W., Jackson-Belli, R., & Cosby, A. (2002). Healthy and unhealthy places in America: Are these really spatial clusters? Proceedings of the 22nd Annual ESRI International User Conference. 2002. Published as a CD-ROM. Retrieved 9 September 2006, from: http://gis.esri.com/library/userconf/proc02/abstracts/a1064.html
Cossman, R. E., Cossman, J. S., Jackson, R., & Cosby, A. (2003). Mapping high or low mortality places across time in the United States: A research note on a health visualization and analysis project. Health & Place, 9
(4), 361–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cromartie, J. B., & Swanson, L. L. (1996). Census tracts more precisely define rural populations and areas. Rural Development Perspectives, 11
(3), 31–39.Google Scholar
Cromartie, J. (2001). Measuring rurality: What is rural? US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. Retrieved 9 September 2006, from: http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/rurality/WhatisRural/
Desan, P. (1995). Work in the Renaissance. Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 25
(1), 1–15.Google Scholar
Dillon, W., & Goldstein, M. (1984). Multivariate analysis: Methods and applications
. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Eberhardt, M. S., Ingram, D. D., Makuc, D. M., et al. (2001). Urban and Rural Health Chartbook. Health, United States, 2001. Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
Evan, R. G., Barer, M. L. & Marmor, T. R. (Eds.). (1994). Why are some people healthy and others not?: The determinants of health of populations. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Feinleib, M., & Zarate, A. O. (Eds.). (1992). Reconsidering age adjustment procedures: Workshop proceedings. Vital Health Statistics, 4(29).
Fisher, E. S., Wennberg, J. E., Stukel, T. A., Skinner, J. S., Sharp, S. M., Freeman, J. L., & Gittelsohn, A. M. (2000). Associations among hospital capacity, utilization, and mortality of US Medicare beneficiaries, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Health Services Research, 34
(6), 1351–1362.Google Scholar
Fluharty, C. W. (2000). Comments regarding the final report and recommendations from the metropolitan area standards review committee to the Office of Management and Budget concerning changes to the standards for defining metropolitan area [letter submitted to OMB regarding OMB’s review of metropolitan areas standards]. National Rural Network, Washington, DC.
Friedrichs, C. (1995). The early modern city, 1450–1750
. New York: Longman Press.Google Scholar
Ghelfi, L. M., & Parker, T. S. (1995). A new county-level measure of urban influence. Staff Paper, Rural Economy Division, Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture.
Goldsmith, H. F., Puskin, D. S., & Stiles, D. J. (1993). Improving the operational definition of “rural areas” for federal programs. Federal Office of Rural Health Policy. Retrieved 9 September 2006 from: http://www.ruralhealth.hrsa.gov/pub/Goldsmith.htm
Goodall, C. R., Kafadar, K., & Tukey, J. W. (1998). Computing and using rural versus urban measures in statistical applications. The American Statistician, 52
(2), 101–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenland, S. (1992). Divergent biases in ecologic and individual-level studies. Statistics in Medicine, 11
, 1209–1223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gritzer, G. (1982). Occupational specialization in medicine: Knowledge and market explanations. Research in the Sociology of Health Care, 2
, 251–283.Google Scholar
Hayward, M. D., Pienta, A. M., & McLaughlin, D. K. (1997). Inequality in men’s mortality: The socioeconomic status gradient and geographic context. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 38
, 313–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Health Resources and Services Administration (2000). Community Health Status Indicators Project: CHSI Stratification Process.
Hewitt, M. (1992). Defining “rural” areas: Impact on health care policy research. In W. M. Gesler, & T. C. Ricketts (Eds.), Health in rural North America: The geography of health care services and delivery
(pp. 25–54). New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
LeClere, F. B., Rogers, R. G., & Peters, K. D. (1997). Ethnicity and mortality in the United States: Individual and community correlates. Social Forces, 76
, 169–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leeming, W. (2001). Professionalization theory, medical specialists and the concept of “national patterns of specialization.” Social Science Information, 40
(3), 455–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lomax, R. G. (1992). Statistical concepts: A second course for education and the behavioral sciences
. New York: Longman Press.Google Scholar
Losch, A. (1954). The economics of location. (W.H. Woglom, translator). New Haven: Yale University Press.
Lynch, J. W., & Kaplan, G. A. (1997). Understanding how inequality in the distribution of income affects health. Journal of Health Psychology, 2
, 297–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lynch, J. W., Kaplan, G. A., Pamuk, E. R., Cohen, R. D., Heck, K. E., Balfour, J. L., & Yen, I. H. (1998). Income inequality and mortality in metropolitan areas of the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 88
(7), 1074–1080.Google Scholar
Mansfield, C. J., Wilson, J. L., Kobrinski, E. J., & Mitchell, J. (1999). Premature mortality in the United States: The roles of geographic area, socioeconomic status, household type, and availability of medical care. American Journal of Public Health, 89
(6), 893–898.Google Scholar
McLaughlin, D. K., Stokes, C. S., & Nonoyama, A. (2001). Residence and income inequality: Effects on mortality among US counties. Rural Sociology, 66
(4), 579–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, M. K., Farmer, F. L., & Clarke L. L. (1994). Rural populations and their health. In J. E. Beaulieu & D. E. Berry (Eds.), Rural health services
(pp. 3–26). Ann Arbor: AUPHA Press/Health Administration Press.Google Scholar
Miller, M. K., Stokes, C. S., & Clifford, W. B. A. (1987). Comparison of the rural-urban mortality differential from death from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The Journal of Rural Health, 3
, 23–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, M. K., Voth, D. E., & Danforth, D. M. (1982). The medical care system and community malady: Rural, urban, and suburban variations. Rural Sociology, 47
, 634–654.Google Scholar
Morgan, A. A. (2002). National call to action: CDC’s 2001 Urban and Rural Health Chartbook. The Journal of Rural Health, 18
(3), 382–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morgenstern, H. (1998). Ecologic study. In P. Armitage & T. Colton (Eds.), Encyclopedia of biostatistics
, (Vol. 2, pp. 255–276). New York: Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
Morrill, R., Cromartie, J., & Hart, G. (1999). Metropolitan, urban, and rural commuting areas: Toward a better depiction of the United States settlement system. Urban Geography, 20
(8), 727–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
National Center for Health Statistics (2000). Compressed mortality file: 1968–88. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Hyattsville.
National Center for Health Statistics (2001a). Compressed mortality file: 1989–98. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Hyattsville.
National Center for Health Statistics (2001b). Documentation for the compressed mortality file: 1989–98. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Hyattsville.
Office of Management and Budget (1995). Metropolitan areas: 1995 Lists I-IV, Statistical Policy Office, Office of Management and Budget, Attachment to OMB Bulleting No. 95-04. Retrieved 9 September 2006 from: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/bulletins/print/95-04attachintro.html
Office of Management and Budget (2000). Standards for defining metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. Federal Register, 65
(249), 82228–82238, December 27.Google Scholar
Parker, T. (2001). Measuring rurality: Urban influence codes. US Department of Agriculture Web Site (Briefing Room, Economic Research Service). Retrieved 9 September 2006 from: http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/rurality/UrbanInf/
Pfaffenberger, R. C., & Patterson, J. H. (1987). Statistical methods for business and economics
. Homewood: Irwin.Google Scholar
Rashevsky, N. (1947). Mathematical theory of human relations. Mathematical Biophysics Monograph Series, No. 2
. Bloomington: The Principia Press.Google Scholar
Ricketts, T. C. III. (2002). Rural health research and rural health in the 21st century: The future of rural health and the future of rural health services research. The Journal of Rural Health, 18
(Supplement), 140–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ricketts, T. C. III. (Ed.). (1999). Rural health in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ricketts, T. C. III., Johnson-Webb, K. D., & Taylor, P. (1998). Definitions of rural: A handbook for health policy makers and researchers. Federal Office of Rural Health Policy, Health Resources and Services Administration, US Department of Health and Human Services. Washington: Government Printing Office.
Ricketts, T. C., Savitz, L. A., Gesler, W. M., & Osborne, D. N. (Eds.). (1994). Geographic methods for health services research: A focus on the rural-urban continuum. Lanham: University Press of America.
Rural Policy Research Institute (2000). The importance of place in public policy. Retrieved 9 September 2006 from: http://www.rupri.org/resources/context/pubpolicy.html
Sassen, S. (1991). Global cities: New York, London, Tokyo
. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Shryock, H., Siegel, J., et al. (1976). The methods and materials of demography
. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Simon, H. A. (1955). On a class of skew distribution functions. Biometrika, 42
, 425–440.Google Scholar
Strauss, A., Fagerhaugh, S., Suczek, B., & Wiener, C. (1982). Medical technology’s impact on hospital organization and specialization. International Sociological Association paper.
U.S. Bureau of the Census (1995). Urban and rural definitions. Retrieved 9 September 2006, from US Bureau of Census Web site: http://www.census.gov/population/censusdata/urdef.txt
Wright, J. S., & Lick, D. W. (1986). Health in rural America. In D. Jahr, J. W. Johnson, & R. C. Wimberly (Eds.), New dimensions in rural policy: Building upon our heritage
(pp. 461–469). Washington: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Zipf, G. K. (1949). Human behavior and the principle of least effort
. Cambridge: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar