Population and Environment

, Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 69–86 | Cite as

Emerging issues in urban ecology: implications for research, social justice, human health, and well-being

  • Viniece Jennings
  • Myron F. Floyd
  • Danielle Shanahan
  • Christopher Coutts
  • Alex Sinykin
Perspectives

Abstract

Urbanization affects landscape structure and the overall human condition in numerous ways. Green spaces include vegetated land cover (e.g., urban forests, trees, riparian zones, parks) which play a distinctive role in urban ecology. This article reviews emergent literature on the linkages between urban green spaces, social justice, and human health. We explore this subject in the context of landscape structure, ecosystem services, and distributional equity as it relates to various health outcomes. Finally, we conclude by identifying gaps in the scholarship and potential areas of future research.

Keywords

Green space Urban ecology Public health Nature Well-being 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The content in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the federal government.

References

  1. Abercrombie, L. C., Sallis, J. F., Conway, T. L., Frank, L. D., Saelens, B. E., & Chapman, J. E. (2008). Income and racial disparities in access to public parks and private recreation facilities. Am J Prev Med, 34(1), 9–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anguelovski, I. (2015). From toxic sites to parks as (green) LULUs? New challenges of inequity, privilege, gentrification, and exclusion for urban environmental justice. Journal of Planning Literature, 0885412215610491.Google Scholar
  3. Astell-Burt, T., Feng, X., Mavoa, S., Badland, H. M., & Giles-Corti, B. (2014). Do low-income neighbourhoods have the least green space? A cross-sectional study of Australia’s most populous cities. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benedict, M. A., & McMahon, E. T. (2006). Green infrastructure. Linking landscapes and communities, Washington-Covelo-London.Google Scholar
  5. Bengston, D. N., Fletcher, J. O., & Nelson, K. C. (2004). Public policies for managing urban growth and protecting open space: policy instruments and lessons learned in the United States. Landsc Urban Plan, 69(2–3), 271–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boone, C. G., Buckley, G. L., Grove, J. M., & Sister, C. (2009). Parks and people: an environmental justice inquiry in Baltimore, Maryland. Ann Assoc Am Geogr, 99(4), 767–787. doi: 10.1080/00045600903102949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bruton, C., & Floyd, M. (2014). Disparities in built and natural features of urban parks: comparisons by neighborhood level race/ethnicity and income. Journal of Urban Health, 1–14. doi: 10.1007/s11524-014-9893-4.
  8. Bull, J., Jobstvogt, N., Böhnke-Henrichs, A., Mascarenhas, A., Sitas, N., Baulcomb, C., Lambini, C., Rawlins, M., Baral, H., & Zähringer, J. (2016). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats: a SWOT analysis of the ecosystem services framework. Ecosystem Services, 17, 99–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bullard, R. (2000). Dumping in the Dixie: race, class and environmental quality. Westview Press.Google Scholar
  10. CICES. (2015). Structure of CICES. Retrieved from http://cices.eu/.
  11. CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention). (2008). Healthy Places Terminology. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyplaces/terminology.htmGoogle Scholar
  12. Clarke, L. W., Jenerette, G. D., & Davila, A. (2013). The luxury of vegetation and the legacy of tree biodiversity in Los Angeles, CA. Landsc Urban Plan, 116, 48–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohen, D. A., Lapham, S., Evenson, K. R., Williamson, S., Golinelli, D., Ward, P., Hillier, A., & McKenzie, T. L. (2013). Use of neighbourhood parks: does socio-economic status matter? A four-city study. Public Health, 127(4), 325–332. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2013.01.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Conway, T. M., Shakeel, T., & Atallah, J. (2011). Community groups and urban forestry activity: drivers of uneven canopy cover? Landsc Urban Plan, 101(4), 321–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coombes, E., Jones, A., & Hillsdon, M. (2010). The relationship of physical activity and overweight to objectivity measured green space accessibility and use. Soc Sci Med, 70(6), 816–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Coutts, C. (2010). Public Health Ecology. Journal of Environmental Health, January/February 53-55. Google Scholar
  17. Coutts, C. J., & Horner, M. W. (2015). Nature and death: an individual level analysis of the relationship between biophilic environments and premature mortality in Florida. Spatial Analysis in Health Geography, 295.Google Scholar
  18. Crowder, K., & Downey, L. (2010). Inter-neighborhood migration, race, and environmental hazards: modeling micro-level processes of environmental inequality. AJS; American journal of sociology, 115(4), 1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cumming, G. S. (2011). Spatial resilience: integrating landscape ecology, resilience, and sustainability. Landsc Ecol, 26(7), 899–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dadvand, P., de Nazelle, A., Figueras, F., Basagaña, X., Su, J., Amoly, E., Jerrett, M., Vrijheid, M., Sunyer, J., & Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. (2012). Green space, health inequality and pregnancy. Environ Int, 40, 110–115. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2011.07.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dai, D. (2011). Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in urban green space accessibility: where to intervene? Landsc Urban Plan, 102, 234–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dallimer, M., Irvine, K. N., Skinner, A. M., Davies, Z. G., Rouquette, J. R., Maltby, L. L., Warren, P. H., Armsworth, P. R., & Gaston, K. J. (2012). Biodiversity and the feel-good factor: understanding associations between self-reported human well-being and species richness. Bioscience, 62(1), 47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De Groot, R., Fisher, B., Christie, M., Aronson, J., Braat, L., Haines-Young, R., Gowdy, J., Maltby, E., Neuville, A., & Polasky, S. (2010). Integrating the ecological and economic dimensions in biodiversity and ecosystem service valuation. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB): Ecological and Economic Foundations: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  24. Dobbs, C., Kendal, D., & Nitschke, C. R. (2014). Multiple ecosystem services and disservices of the urban forest establishing their connections with landscape structure and sociodemographics. Ecol Indic, 43, 44–55. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.02.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Donovan, G. H., Butry, D. T., Michael, Y. L., Prestemon, J. P., Liebhold, A. M., Gatziolis, D., & Mao, M. Y. (2013). The relationship between trees and human health: evidence from the spread of the emerald ash borer. Am J Prev Med, 44(2), 139–145. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.09.066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Duncan, D., Kawachi, I., White, K., & Williams, D. R. (2012). The geography of recreational open space: influence of neighborhood racial composition and neighborhood poverty. Journal of Urban Health, October.Google Scholar
  27. Duncan, D. T., Kawachi, I., Kum, S., Aldstadt, J., Piras, G., Matthews, S. A., Arbia, G., Castro, M. C., White, K., & Williams, D. R. (2014). A spatially explicit approach to the study of socio-demographic inequality in the spatial distribution of trees across boston neighborhoods. Spatial Demography 2, 1-29. Google Scholar
  28. Dye, C. (2008). Health and urban living. Science, 319(5864), 766–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Escobedo, F. J., Kroeger, T., & Wagner, J. E. (2011). Urban forests and pollution mitigation: analyzing ecosystem services and disservices. Environ Pollut, 159(8–9), 2078–2087. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.01.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Flocks, J., Escobedo, F., Wade, J., Varela, S., & Wald, C. (2011). Environmental justice implications of urban tree cover in Miami-Dade County. Florida Environmental Justice, 4(2), 125–134. doi: 10.1089/env.2010.0018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Floyd, M. F., Spengler, J. O., Maddock, J. E., Gobster, P. H., & Suau, L. (2008). Environmental and social correlates of physical activity in neighborhood parks: an observational study in Tampa and Chicago. Leis Sci, 30(4), 360–375. doi: 10.1080/01490400802165156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Forsyth, A., Musacchio, L., & Fitzgerald, F. (2005). Designing small parks: a manual for addressing social and ecological concerns. John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  33. Fuller, R. A., Irvine, K. N., Devine-Wright, P., Warren, P. H., & Gaston, K. J. (2007). Psychological benefits of greenspace increase with biodiversity. Biol Lett, 3(4), 390–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Giles-Corti, B., Bull, F., Knuiman, M., McCormack, G., Van Niel, K., Timperio, A., Christian, H., Foster, S., Divitini, M., & Middleton, N. (2013). The influence of urban design on neighbourhood walking following residential relocation: longitudinal results from the RESIDE study. Soc Sci Med, 77, 20–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gillner, S., Vogt, J., Tharang, A., Dettmann, S., & Roloff, A. (2015). Role of street trees in mitigating effects of heat and drought at highly sealed urban sites. Landsc Urban Plan, 143, 33–42. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.06.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gordon-Larsen, P., Nelson, M. C., Page, P., & Popkin, B. M. (2006). Inequality in the built environment underlies key health disparities in physical activity and obesity. Pediatrics, 117(2), 417–424. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-0058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Grimm, N. B., Faeth, S. H., Golubiewski, N. E., Redman, C. L., Wu, J. G., Bai, X. M., & Briggs, J. M. (2008). Global change and the ecology of cities. Science, 319(5864), 756–760. doi: 10.1126/science.1150195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Guerry, A. D., Polasky, S., Lubchenco, J., Chaplin-Kramer, R., Daily, G. C., Griffin, R., Ruckelshaus, M., Bateman, I. J., Duraiappah, A., & Elmqvist, T. (2015). Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: from promise to practice. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 112(24), 7348–7355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Haddad, N. M., Brudvig, L. A., Clobert, J., Davies, K. F., Gonzalez, A., Holt, R. D., Lovejoy, T. E., Sexton, J. O., Austin, M. P., Collins, C. D., Cook, W. M., Damschen, E. I., Ewers, R. M., Foster, B. L., Jenkins, C. N., King, A. J., Laurance, W. F., Levey, D. J., Margules, C. R., Melbourne, B. A., Nicholls, A. O., Orrock, J. L., Song, D.-X., & Townshend, J. R. (2015). Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems. Science Advances, 1(2).Google Scholar
  40. Harris, B., Larson, L., & Ogletree, S. (2017). Different views from the 606: examining the impacts of an urban greenway on crime in Chicago. Environment and Behavior, 1–30.Google Scholar
  41. Harrison, P., Berry, P., Simpson, G., Haslett, J., Blicharska, M., Bucur, M., Dunford, R., Egoh, B., Garcia-Llorente, M., & Geamănă, N. (2014). Linkages between biodiversity attributes and ecosystem services: a systematic review. Ecosystem Services, 9, 191–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hartig, T., Mitchell, R., de Vries, S., & Frumkin, H. (2014). Nature and health. Annu Rev Public Health, 35(1). doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182443.
  43. Hastings, D. W., Zahran, S., & Cable, S. (2006). Drowning in inequalities swimming and social justice. Journal of Black Studies, 36(6), 894–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Heynen, N., Perkins, H. A., & Roy, P. (2006). The political ecology of uneven urban green space. Urban Aff Rev, 42(1), 3–25. doi: 10.1177/1078087406290729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huang, J., Lu, X. X., & Sellers, J. M. (2007). A global comparative analysis of urban form: applying spatial metrics and remote sensing. Landsc Urban Plan, 82(4), 184–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hunter, R. F., Christian, H., Veitch, J., Astell-Burt, T., Hipp, J. A., & Schipperijn, J. (2015). The impact of interventions to promote physical activity in urban green space: a systematic review and recommendations for future research. Soc Sci Med, 124, 246–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jackson, L., Daniel, J., McCorkle, B., Sears, A., & Bush, K. (2013). Linking ecosystem services and human health: the eco-health relationship browser. International Journal of Public Health, 58(5), 747–755. doi: 10.1007/s00038-013-0482-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. James, P., Banay, R. F., Hart, J. E., & Laden, F. (2015). A review of the health benefits of greenness. Current epidemiology reports, 2(2), 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jarrett, R. L., Bahar, O. S., Williams, D. A., & Mcpherson, E. (2012). “The kids need a safe place to play”: caregivers’ recommendations for promoting child physical activity in an inner-city neighborhood. The International Journal of the Constructed Environment, 2(3), 233–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jarrett, R. L., Bahar, O. S., McPherson, E., & Williams, D. A. (2013). No child left inside: the built environment and caregiver strategies to promote child physical activity. J Leis Res, 45(4), 485.Google Scholar
  51. Jennings, V., & Johnson Gaither, C. (2015). Approaching environmental health disparities and green spaces: an ecosystem services perspective. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 12(2), 1952–1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jennings, V., Johnson Gaither, C., & Gragg, R. (2012). Promoting environmental justice through urban green space access: a synopsis. Environmental Justice, 5(1), 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jennings, V., Larson, C., & Larson, L. (2016a). Ecosystem services and preventive medicine: a natural connection. Am J Prev Med, 50(5), 642–645. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2015.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jennings, V., Larson, L., & Yun, J. (2016b). Advancing sustainability through urban green space: cultural ecosystem services, equity, and social determinants of health. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 13(2), 196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jennings, V., Yun, J., & Larson, L. (2016c). Finding common ground: environmental ethics, social justice, and a sustainable path for nature-based health promotion. Healthcare, 4(3), 61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jesdale, B. M., Morello-Frosch, R., & Cushing, L. (2013). The racial/ethnic distribution of heat risk-related land cover in relation to residential segregation. Environ Health Perspect, 121(7), 811–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Johnson Gaither, C. (2015). Smokestacks, parkland, and community composition examining environmental burdens and benefits in Hall County, Georgia, USA. Environ Behav, 47(10), 1127–1146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kabisch, N. (2015). Ecosystem service implementation and governance challenges in urban green space planning—the case of Berlin, Germany. Land Use Policy, 42, 557–567. doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2014.09.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kardan, O., Gozdyra, P., Misic, B., Moola, F., Palmer, L. J., Paus, T., & Berman, M. G. (2015). Neighborhood greenspace and health in a large urban center. Scientific Reports, 5.Google Scholar
  60. Kondo, M. C., Low, S. C., Henning, J., & Branas, C. C. (2015a). The impact of green stormwater infrastructure installation on surrounding health and safety. Am J Public Health, 105(3), e114–e121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kondo, M. C., South, E. C., & Branas, C. C. (2015b). Nature-based strategies for improving urban health and safety. Journal of Urban Health, 1–15. doi: 10.1007/s11524-015-9983-y.
  62. Kondo, M. C., Han, S. H., Donovan, G. H., & MacDonald, J. M. (2017). The association between urban trees and crime: evidence from the spread of the emerald ash borer in Cincinnati. Landsc Urban Plan, 157, 193–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kuo, M. (2015). How might contact with nature promote human health? Promising mechanisms and a possible central pathway. Frontiers in Psychology, 6.Google Scholar
  64. Kuo, F. E., & Sullivan, W. C. (2001). Environment and crime in the inner city. Environ Behav, 33(3), 343–367. doi: 10.1177/0013916501333002.Google Scholar
  65. Lachowycz, K., & Jones, A. (2013). Towards a better understanding of the relationship between greenspace and health: development of a theoretical framework. Landsc Urban Plan, 118, 62–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Landry, S. M., & Chakraborty, J. (2009). Street trees and equity: evaluating the spatial distribution of an urban amenity. Environment and Planning A, 41(11), 2651–2670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Larson, L., Jennings, V., & Cloutier, S. A. (2016a). Public parks and wellbeing in urban areas of the United States. PLoS One, 11(4), e0153211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Larson, L., Keith, S., Fernandez, M., Hallo, J. C., Shafer, C. S., & Jennings, V. (2016b). Ecosystem services and urban greenways: what's the public's perspective? Ecosystem Services, 22, Part A, 111–116. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.10.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Li, X., Zhang, C., Li, W., Kuzovkina, Y. A., & Weiner, D. (2015). Who lives in greener neighborhoods? The distribution of street greenery and its association with residents’ socioeconomic conditions in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. Urban For Urban Green, 14(4), 751–759. doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2015.07.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Locke, D. H., Han, S. H., Kondo, M. C., Murphy-Dunning, C., & Cox, M. (2017). Did community greening reduce crime? Evidence from New Haven, CT, 1996–2007. Landsc Urban Plan, 161, 72–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lovasi, G. S., O'Neil-Dunne, J., Lu, J. W. T., Sheehan, D., Perzanowski, M. S., MacFaden, S., King, K., Matte, T., Miller, R., Hoepner, L., Perera, F., & Rundle, A. (2013). Urban tree canopy and asthma, wheeze, rhinitis, and allergic sensitization to tree pollen in a New York City birth cohort. Environ Health Perspect, 121(4), 494–500.Google Scholar
  72. McConnachie, M., Shackleton, C. M., & McGregor, G. K. (2008). The extent of public green space and alien plant species in 10 small towns of the Sub-Tropical Thicket Biome, South Africa. Urban For Urban Green, 7(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McDonnell, M. J., & MacGregor-Fors, I. (2016). The ecological future of cities. Science, 352(6288), 936–938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. MEA. (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: current state and trends. Retrieved fromGoogle Scholar
  75. Mellilo, J., & Sala, O. (2008). Ecosystem services. In E. Chivian & A. Bernstein (Eds.), Sustaining life: how human health depends on biodiversity (pp. 75–115). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Mitchell, R., & Popham, F. (2008). Effect of exposure to natural environment on health inequalities: an observational population study. Lancet, 372(9650), 1655–1660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mitchell, R. J., Richardson, E. A., Shortt, N. K., & Pearce, J. R. (2015). Neighborhood environments and socioeconomic inequalities in mental well-being. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.Google Scholar
  78. Myers, S., Gaffikin, L., Golden, C., Ostfeld, R., Redford, K., Ricketts, T., Turner, W., & Osofsky, S. (2013). Human health impacts of ecosystem alteration. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 110(47), 18753–18760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. National Park Service Health and Wellness Executive Steering Committee (2011). Healthy Parks Healthy People US Strategic Action Plan. Retrieved from: https://www.nps.gov/public_health/hp/hphp/press/1012-955-WASO.pdfGoogle Scholar
  80. Oyebode, O., Pape, U. J., Laverty, A. A., Lee, J. T., Bhan, N., & Millett, C. (2015). Rural, urban and migrant differences in non-communicable disease risk-factors in middle income countries: a cross-sectional study of WHO-SAGE Data.Google Scholar
  81. Pataki, D. E., Carreiro, M. M., Cherrier, J., Grulke, N., Jennings, V., Pincetl, S., Pouyat, R. V., Whitlow, T. H., & Zipperer, W. C. (2011). Coupling biogeochemical cycles in urban environments: ecosystem services, green solutions, and misconceptions. Front Ecol Environ, 9(1), 27–36. doi: 10.1890/090220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Payne-Sturges, D., & Gee, G. C. (2006). National environmental health measures for minority and low-income populations: tracking social disparities in environmental health. Environ Res, 102(2), 154–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Perrings, C., Naeem, S., Ahrestani, F., Bunker, D. E., Burkill, P., Canziani, G., Elmqvist, T., Ferrati, R., Fuhrman, J., & Jaksic, F. (2010). Ecosystem services for 2020. Science(Washington), 330(6002), 323–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pham, T.-T.-H., Apparicio, P., Séguin, A.-M., Landry, S., & Gagnon, M. (2012). Spatial distribution of vegetation in Montreal: an uneven distribution or environmental inequity? Landsc Urban Plan, 107(3), 214–224. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.06.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pickett, S., Cadenasso, M., Grove, J. M., Boone, C. G., Groffman, P. M., Irwin, E., Kaushal, S. S., Marshall, V., McGrath, B. P., & Nilon, C. H. (2011). Urban ecological systems: scientific foundations and a decade of progress. J Environ Manag, 92(3), 331–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Quiroga, L., Fischer, S., & Schweigmann, N. (2013). Immature mosquitoes associated with urban parklands: implications for water and mosquito management. J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 29(1), 27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Richardson, E. A., Mitchell, R., Hartig, T., de Vries, S., Astell-Burt, T., & Frumkin, H. (2012). Green cities and health: a question of scale? J Epidemiol Community Health. doi: 10.1136/jech.2011.137240.Google Scholar
  88. Roe, J., Thompson, C., Aspinall, P., Brewer, M., Duff, E., Miller, D., Mitchell, R., & Clow, A. (2013). Green space and stress: evidence from cortisol measures in deprived urban communities. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 10(9), 4086–4103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Secretariat of the Convention of Biological Diversity. (2012). Cities and biodiversity: action and policy. Retrieved from Montreal, Canada: https://www.cbd.int/doc/publications/cbo-booklet-2012-en.pdf.
  90. Schwarz, K., Fragkias, M., Boone, C. G., Zhou, W., McHale, M., Grove, J. M., O’Neil-Dunne, J., McFadden, J. P., Buckley, G. L., & Childers, D. (2015). Trees grow on money: urban tree canopy cover and environmental justice. PLoS One, 10(4).Google Scholar
  91. Scopelliti, M., Carrus, G., Adinolfi, C., Suarez, G., Colangelo, G., Lafortezza, R., Panno, A., & Sanesi, G. (2016). Staying in touch with nature and well-being in different income groups: the experience of urban parks in Bogotá. Landsc Urban Plan, 148, 139–148. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.11.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Shanahan, D., Lin, B., Gaston, K., Bush, R., & Fuller, R. (2015a). What is the role of trees and remnant vegetation in attracting people to urban parks? Landsc Ecol, 30(1), 153–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Shanahan, D. F., Lin, B. B., Bush, R., Gaston, K. J., Dean, J. H., Barber, E., & Fuller, R. A. (2015b). Toward improved public health outcomes from urban nature. Am J Public Health, 105(3), 470–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Smiley, K. T., Sharma, T., Steinberg, A., Hodges-Copple, S., Jacobson, E., & Matveeva, L. (2016). More inclusive parks planning: park quality and preferences for park access and amenities. Environmental Justice, 9(1), 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. South, E. C., Kondo, M. C., Cheney, R. A., & Branas, C. C. (2015). Neighborhood blight, stress, and health: a walking trial of urban greening and ambulatory heart rate. Am J Public Health, 105(5), 909–913. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Taha, H., Douglas, S., & Haney, J. (1997). Mesoscale meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetation. Energy and Buildings, 25(2), 169–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tanner, C. J., Adler, F. R., Grimm, N. B., Groffman, P. M., Levin, S. A., Munshi-South, J., Pataki, D. E., Pavao-Zuckerman, M., & Wilson, W. G. (2014). Urban ecology: advancing science and society. Front Ecol Environ, 12(10), 574–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Taylor, W. C., Floyd, M. F., Whitt-Glover, M., & Brooks, J. (2007). Environmental justice: a framework for collaboration between the public health and parks and recreation fields to study disparities in physical activity. Journal of Physical Acitivity and Health, 4(1), S50–S63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. TEEB. (2008). Ecosystem services. Retrieved from http://www.teebweb.org/resources/ecosystem-services/
  100. Tooke, T. R., Klinkenber, B., & Coops, N. C. (2010). A geographical approach to identifying vegetation-related environmental equity in Canadian cities. Environment and planning B, Planning & design, 37(6), 1040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Troy, A. R., Grove, J. M., O’Neil-Dunne, J. P., Pickett, S. T., & Cadenasso, M. L. (2007). Predicting opportunities for greening and patterns of vegetation on private urban lands. Environ Manag, 40(3), 394–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Troy, A., Grove, J. M., & O’Neil-Dunne, J. (2012). The relationship between tree canopy and crime rates across an urban–rural gradient in the greater Baltimore region. Landsc Urban Plan, 106(3), 262–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tsai, W.-L., Floyd, M. F., Leung, Y.-F., McHale, M. R., & Reich, B. J. (2015). Urban vegetative cover fragmentation in the U.S. Am J Prev Med. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2015.09.022.Google Scholar
  104. Turner, M. G., Donato, D. C., & Romme, W. H. (2013). Consequences of spatial heterogeneity for ecosystem services in changing forest landscapes: priorities for future research. Landsc Ecol, 28(6), 1081–1097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tzoulas, K., Korpela, K., Venn, S., Yli-Pelkonen, V., Kazmierczak, A., Niemela, J., & James, P. (2007). Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using green infrastructure: a literature review. Landsc Urban Plan, 81(3), 167–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. United Kingdom Department of Health. (2010). Healthy lives, healthy people: our strategy for public health in England (Vol. 7985): The Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  107. United Nations (2014). World urbanization prospects: the 2014 revision, highlights. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division, United Nations.Google Scholar
  108. van Heezik, Y., Freeman, C., Porter, S., & Dickinson, K. J. (2013). Garden size, householder knowledge, and socio-economic status influence plant and bird diversity at the scale of individual gardens. Ecosystems, 16(8), 1442–1454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Vision. (2015). Our cities need more plants and trees—the risks. Retrieved from http://202020vision.com.au/the-issues/climate-environment/risk/
  110. Ward Thompson, C., Aspinall, P., Roe, J., Robertson, L., & Miller, D. (2016). Mitigating stress and supporting health in deprived urban communities: the importance of green space and the social environment. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 13(4), 440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Watkins, S. L., Mincey, S. K., Vogt, J., & Sweeney, S. P. (2016). Is planting equitable? An examination of the spatial distribution of nonprofit urban tree-planting programs by canopy cover, income, race, and ethnicity. Environment and Behavior, 1–31.Google Scholar
  112. Wen, M., Zhang, X., Harris, C. D., Holt, J. B., & Croft, J. B. (2013). Spatial disparities in the distribution of parks and green spaces in the USA. Ann Behav Med, 45(1), 18–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. West, S. T., Shores, K. A., & Mudd, L. M. (2012). Association of available parkland, physical activity, and overweight in America's largest cities. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 18(5), 423–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wheeler, B. W., Lovell, R., Higgins, S. L., White, M. P., Alcock, I., Osborne, N. J., Husk, K., Sabel, C. E., & Depledge, M. H. (2015). Beyond greenspace: an ecological study of population general health and indicators of natural environment type and quality. Int J Health Geogr, 14(1), 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. WHO. (2005). Ecosystems and human well being-health synthesis. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/globalchange/ecosystems/ecosys.pdf.
  116. Wilson, J. S., Clay, M., Martin, E., Stuckey, D., & Vedder-Risch, K. (2003). Evaluating environmental influences of zoning in urban ecosystems with remote sensing. Remote Sens Environ, 86(3), 303–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wolch, J., Byrne, J., & Newell, J. (2014). Urban green space, public health, and environmental justice: the challenge of making cities ‘just green enough’. Landsc Urban Plan, 125, 234–244. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.01.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wolf, K. L., & Housley, E. (2013). Feeling stressed? Take a time out in nature. Retrieved from Annapolis, MD.Google Scholar
  119. Wolf, K. L., & Robbins, A. S. (2015). Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value. Environ Health Perspect, 123(5), 390–398.Google Scholar
  120. Wright, H. (2011). Understanding green infrastructure: the development of a contested concept in England. Local Environ, 16(10), 1003–1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wright Wendel, H. E., Downs, J. A., & Mihelcic, J. R. (2011). Assessing equitable access to urban green space: the role of engineered water infrastructure. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(16), 6728–6734. doi: 10.1021/es103949f.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wu, J. (2013). Landscape sustainability science: ecosystem services and human well-being in changing landscapes. Landsc Ecol, 28(6), 999–1023. doi: 10.1007/s10980-013-9894-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zhou, X., & Kim, J. (2013). Social disparities in tree canopy and park accessibility: a case study of six cities in Illinois using GIS and remote sensing. Urban For Urban Green, 12(1), 88–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Viniece Jennings
    • 1
  • Myron F. Floyd
    • 2
  • Danielle Shanahan
    • 3
    • 4
  • Christopher Coutts
    • 5
  • Alex Sinykin
    • 6
  1. 1.USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station - Integrating Human and Natural SystemsAthensUSA
  2. 2.Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism ManagementNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  3. 3.ZealandiaWellingtonNew Zealand
  4. 4.School of Biological SciencesThe University of Queensland AustraliaSt. LuciaAustralia
  5. 5.Department of Urban and Regional PlanningFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  6. 6.Department of GeographyThe University of North Carolina-GreensboroGreensboroUSA

Personalised recommendations