Population and Environment

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 85–110 | Cite as

Climate-related migration in rural Bangladesh: a behavioural model

  • Maxmillan MartinEmail author
  • Motasim Billah
  • Tasneem Siddiqui
  • Chowdhury Abrar
  • Richard Black
  • Dominic Kniveton
Original Paper


Research into the climate change and migration nexus has often focussed solely on how people move in response to the impacts of variability and change in climate. This notion often ignores the nature of migration as a tried and tested livelihood choice amid a variety of socio-economic and environmental opportunities and limitations. This paper closely looks at the behavioural aspects of migration decision-making in Bangladesh in the context of changes in its economy, and, increasingly, exposure to the impacts of climate variability and change. We find that villagers in areas particularly affected by increasing climatic stresses and shocks are diversifying their traditional livelihood strategies by migrating. Environmental factors, including climatic stresses and shocks, often make such shifts even more necessary. Although the migrants’ primary motivation is better income, in effect, migration becomes an effective form of adaptation. Based on a qualitative study in three geographically distinct places of Bangladesh, we propose that migration is a socially acceptable behaviour that occurs in the context of perceived environmental change and climate variability. Migration decisions are mediated by a set of ‘behavioural factors’ that assesses the efficacy of different responses to opportunities and challenges, their socio-cultural acceptance and the ability to respond successfully. This understanding has policy relevance for climate change adaptation, in terms of both how migrants are perceived and how their movements are planned for.


Climate change Hazards Cognitive model Adaptation Decision-making Planned behaviour 



The study was conducted as part of a CDKN-funded project focusing on climate change-related migration and policy options for adaptation in Bangladesh. The map of Bangladesh was drawn by Pedram Rowhani, Department of Geography, University of Sussex.

Supplementary material

11111_2014_207_MOESM1_ESM.doc (252 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 252 kb)
11111_2014_207_MOESM2_ESM.doc (194 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 194 kb)
11111_2014_207_MOESM3_ESM.doc (108 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOC 108 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maxmillan Martin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Motasim Billah
    • 2
  • Tasneem Siddiqui
    • 2
  • Chowdhury Abrar
    • 2
  • Richard Black
    • 1
    • 3
  • Dominic Kniveton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geography, School of Global StudiesUniversity of SussexBrightonUK
  2. 2.Refugee and Migratory Movements Research Unit (RMMRU)University of DhakaDhakaBangladesh
  3. 3.School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS)University of LondonLondonUK

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