Population and Environment

, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 159–182 | Cite as

Contribution of forest provisioning ecosystem services to rural livelihoods in the Miombo woodlands of Zambia

  • Felix Kanungwe Kalaba
  • Claire Helen Quinn
  • Andrew John Dougill
Original Paper

Abstract

This paper examines the contribution of forest provisioning ecosystem services (FPES) to rural households and assesses the contributions of forests to the annual incomes of households in Africa’s Miombo woodlands. The study employed focus group meetings, in-depth interviews, and interviews of households, as stratified by wealth class and head of household gender in Copperbelt, Zambia. The results show that FPES are vitally important in providing food, medicine, fodder, and construction materials to rural livelihoods. FPES provided 43.9 % of the average household’s income and contributed a 10 % income equalisation effect among households, as revealed by the Gini-coefficient analysis. Poorer households received a lower mean annual income from forests than did their intermediate and wealthy counterparts, but in relative terms, forest income made the greatest contribution to the total household incomes of poor households. When stratified by gender, forests contributed 44.4 and 41.8 % of the income of male- and female-headed households, respectively. The study indicates that wealth, rather than gender, was the key determinant of a household’s engagement in the sale of FPES. The inter- and intra-community differentiation in the use and sale of FPES, as revealed in this study, enables more effective targeting of forest management interventions and informs efforts to reconcile the goals of poverty reduction and forest conservation.

Keywords

Rural livelihoods Ecosystem services Gender Wealth Miombo woodlands 

References

  1. Adhikari, B., Di Falco, S., & Lovett, J. C. (2004). Household characteristics and forest dependency: Evidence from common property forest management in Nepal. Ecological Economics, 48(2), 245–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alelign, A., Yemshaw, Y., Teketay, D., & Edwards, S. (2011). Socio-economic factors affecting sustainable utilization of woody species in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Tropical Ecology, 52(1), 13–24.Google Scholar
  3. Ambrose-Oji, B. (2003). The contribution of NTFPs to the livelihoods of the ‘forest poor’: Evidence from the tropical forest zone of south-west Cameroon. International Forestry Review, 5(2), 106–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Babulo, B., Muys, B., Nega, F., Tollens, E., Nyssen, J., Deckers, J., et al. (2008). Household livelihood strategies and forest dependence in the highlands of Tigray Northern Ethiopia. Agricultural Systems, 98(2), 147–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Belcher, B., Ruíz-Pérez, M., & Achdiawan, R. (2005). Global patterns and trends in the use and management of commercial NTFPs: Implications for livelihoods and conservation. World Development, 33(9), 1435–1452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blake, B., Kasanga, K., Adam, M., Nsiah-Gyabaah, K., Pender, J., Quashie-Sam, S. J., Warburton, K., Williams, K. (1997). Kumasi Natural Research Management Research Project Inception Report. The University of Greenwich, p. 133.Google Scholar
  7. Cavendish, W. (2000). Empirical regularities in the poverty-environment relationship of rural households: Evidence from Zimbabwe. World Development, 28(11), 1979–2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Central Statistics Office. (2005). Living conditions monitoring survey report 2004. Lusaka: Central Statistics Office.Google Scholar
  9. Chidumayo, E. N. (1987). Woodland structure, destruction and conservation in the Copperbelt area of Zambia. Biological Conservation, 40(2), 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chirwa, P. W., Syampungani, S., & Geldenhuys, C. J. (2008). The ecology and management of the Miombo woodlands for sustainable livelihoods in southern Africa: the case for non-timber forest products. Southern Forests, 70(3), 237–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cocks, M. L., Bangay, L., Shackleton, C. M., & Wiersum, K. F. (2008). ‘Rich man poor man’—inter-household and community factors influencing the use of wild plant resources amongst rural households in South Africa. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 15(3), 198–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davidar, P., Arjunan, M., & Puyravaud, J.-P. (2008). Why do local households harvest forest products? A case study from the southern Western Ghats India. Biological Conservation, 141(7), 1876–1884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. de Merode, E., Homewood, K., & Cowlishaw, G. (2004). The value of bushmeat and other wild foods to rural households living in extreme poverty in Democratic Republic of Congo. Biological Conservation, 118(5), 573–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dewees, P. A., Campbell, B. M., Katerere, Y., Sitoe, A., Cunninghams, A. B., Angelsen, A., et al. (2010). Managing the Miombo woodlands of southern Africa: Policies, incentives and options for the rural poor. Natural Resources Policy Research, 2(1), 57–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ellis, F. (2000). The determinants of rural livelihood diversification in developing countries. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 51(2), 289–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. FAO. (2010). Global forest resource assessment. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  17. Fisher, M. (2004). Household welfare and forest dependence in Southern Malawi. Environment and Development Economics, 9(02), 135–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fisher, B., Lewis, S. L., Burgess, N. D., Malimbwi, R. E., Munishi, P. K., Swetnam, R. D., et al. (2011). Implementation and opportunity costs of reducing deforestation and forest degradation in Tanzania. Nature Climate Change, 1(3), 161–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fonjong, L. (2008). Gender roles and practices in natural resources management in the North West Province of Cameroon. Local Environment, 13(5), 461–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gbadegesin, A. (1996). Management of forest resources by women: A case study from the Olokemeji forest reserve area, southwestern Nigeria. Environmental Conservation, 23(2), 115–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. GRZ. (1998). An overview of Copperbelt Forestry Action Plan. Ndola: PFAP.Google Scholar
  22. Hetherington, J. C. (1975). Samples? What shape? How large? How many? Scottish Forestry, 29, 260–267.Google Scholar
  23. Heubach, K., Wittig, R., Nuppenau, E.-A., & Hahn, K. (2011). The economic importance of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) for livelihood maintenance of rural west African communities: A case study from northern Benin. Ecological Economics, 70(11), 1991–2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hill, P. (1986). Development economics on trial: the anthropological case for a prosecution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jumbe, C. B. L., Bwalya, S. M., & Husselman, M. (2009). Contribution of dry forests to rural livelihoods and the national economy in Zambia. XIII World Forestry Congress (pp. 18–23). Argentina: Buenos Aires.Google Scholar
  26. Kalaba, F. K., Chirwa, P. W., Prozesky, H., & Ham, C. (2009). The role of indigenous fruit trees in rural livelihoods: The case of communities in Mwekera area, Copperbelt Province, Zambia. Acta Hort (ISHS), 806, 129–136.Google Scholar
  27. Kamanga, P., Vedeld, P., & Sjaastad, E. (2009). Forest incomes and rural livelihoods in Chiradzulu District, Malawi. Ecological Economics, 68(3), 613–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kepe, T. (2008). Beyond the numbers: Understanding the value of vegetation to rural livelihoods in Africa. Geoforum, 39(2), 958–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kideghesho, J. R., & Msuya, T. S. (2010). Gender and socio-economic factors influencing domestication of indigenous medicinal plants in the West Usambara Mountains, northern Tanzania. International Journal of Biodiversity Science Ecosystem Services and Management, 6(1–2), 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kiptot, E., & Franzel, S. (2012). Gender and agroforestry in Africa: A review of women’s participation. Agroforestry Systems, 84(1), 35–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. MA. (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: Synthesis Washington. DC: World Resource Institute.Google Scholar
  32. Maass, J. M., Balvanera, P., Castillo, A., Daily, G. C., Mooney, H. A., Ehrlich, P., et al. (2005). Ecosystem services of tropical dry forests: Insights from long-term ecological and social research on the Pacific Coast of Mexico. Ecology and Society, 10(1), 1–17.Google Scholar
  33. Malla, Y. B., Neupane, H. R., & Branney, P. J. (2003). Why aren’t poor people benefiting more from community forestry? Journal of forest and livelihood, 3, 78–92.Google Scholar
  34. Mamo, G., Sjaastad, E., & Vedeld, P. (2007). Economic dependence on forest resources: A case from Dendi district, Ethiopia. Forest Policy and Economics, 9(8), 916–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McSweeney, K. (2004). Forest product sale as natural insurance: the effects of household characteristics and the nature of shock in eastern Honduras. Society and Natural Resources, 17(1), 39–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mitchell, J. C., & Barnes, J. A. (1950). The Lamba village: Report of a social survey University of Cape Town.Google Scholar
  37. Pardo, A., de Juan, J. A., & Pardo, J. E. (2001). Post-harvest physiology, quality, and conservation of the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach. Alimentaria, 38(322), 107–117.Google Scholar
  38. Paumgarten, F., & Shackleton, C. M. (2009). Wealth differentiation in household use and trade in non-timber forest products in South Africa. Ecological Economics, 68(12), 2950–2959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Paumgarten, F., & Shackleton, C. M. (2011). The role of non-timber forest products in household coping strategies in South Africa: The influence of household wealth and gender. Population and Environment, 33(1), 108–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pearson, G. A. (1937). Conservation and use of forests in the southwest. Scientific Monthly, 45, 150–157.Google Scholar
  41. Phillips, D., Williams, K., Andrews, G., Clarke, J., Carter, M., Kinsman, P., et al. (1999). Literature review on peri urban natural resource conceptualisation and management approaches, Final Technical Report (p. 210). University of Nottingham and University of Liverpool: DFID Natural Resources Systems Programme.Google Scholar
  42. PRSP. (2002). Poverty Reduction Strategic Paper. Lusaka: Government of the Republic of Zambia.Google Scholar
  43. Reddy, S. R. C., & Chakravarty, S. P. (1999). Forest dependence and income distribution in a subsistence economy: evidence from India. World Development, 27(7), 1141–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rodgers, A., Salehe, J., Howard, G. (1996). The biodiversity of Miombo woodlands. In: B. Campbell (Ed), The Miombo in transition: Woodlands and welfare in Africa (p. 12). Bogor: Center for international forestry research (CIFOR).Google Scholar
  45. Shackleton, C., & Shackleton, S. (2004). The importance of non-timber forest products in rural livelihood security and as safety nets: A review of evidence from South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 100(11–12), 658–664.Google Scholar
  46. Shackleton, C. M., & Shackleton, S. E. (2006). Household wealth status and natural resource use in the Kat River valley South Africa. Ecological Economics, 57(2), 306–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shackleton, C. M., Shackleton, S. E., Buiten, E., & Bird, N. (2007). The importance of dry woodlands and forests in rural livelihoods and poverty alleviation in South Africa. Forest Policy and Economics, 9(5), 558–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Silverman, S. F. (1966). Ethnographic approach to social stratification-prestige in a central Italian community. American Anthropologist, 68(4), 899–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Simon, D., McGregor, D., & Nsiah-Gyabaah, K. (2004). The changing urban-rural interface of African cities: Definitional issues and an application to Kumasi, Ghana. Environment and Urbanization, 16(2), 235–248.Google Scholar
  50. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  51. Sunderlin, W. D., Angelsen, A., Belcher, B., Burgers, P., Nasi, R., Santoso, L., et al. (2005). Livelihoods, forests, and conservation in developing countries: An overview. World Development, 33(9), 1383–1402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Syampungani, S., Geldenhuys, C. J., & Chirwa, P. W. (2010). The use of species-stem curves in sampling the development of the Zambian Miombo woodland species in charcoal production and slash-and-burn regrowth stands. Southern Forests, 72(2), 83–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tesfaye, Y., Roos, A., Campbell, B. M., & Bohlin, F. (2011). Livelihood strategies and the role of forest income in participatory-managed forests of Dodola area in the bale highlands, southern Ethiopia. Forest Policy Economics, 13(4), 258–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tschakert, P., Coomes, O. T., & Potvin, C. (2007). Indigenous livelihoods, slash-and-burn agriculture, and carbon stocks in Eastern Panama. Ecological Economics, 60(4), 807–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Twine, W., Moshe, D., Netshiluvhi, T., & Siphugu, V. (2003). Consumption and direct-use values of savanna bio-resources used by rural households in Mametja, a semi-arid area of Limpopo province, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 99, 467–473.Google Scholar
  56. von der Heyden, C. J., & New, M. G. (2004). Groundwater pollution on the Zambian Copperbelt: deciphering the source and the risk. Science of the Total Environment, 327(1–3), 17–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Whitford, H. N. (1923). The use of tropical land and tropical forests. Scientific Monthly, 17, 135–145.Google Scholar
  58. Yemiru, T., Roos, A., Campbell, B. M., & Bohlin, F. (2010). Forest incomes and poverty alleviation under participatory forest management in the Bale Highlands, Southern Ethiopia. International Forestry Review, 12(1), 66–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Felix Kanungwe Kalaba
    • 1
    • 2
  • Claire Helen Quinn
    • 2
  • Andrew John Dougill
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Natural ResourcesCopperbelt UniversityKitweZambia
  2. 2.Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and EnvironmentUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations