Using innovation to address HIV, AIDS, and environment links: intervention case studies from Zimbabwe, Uganda, and Malawi

  • Roger-Mark De Souza
  • Geoff Heinrich
  • Shannon Senefeld
  • Katharine Coon
  • Peter Sebanja
  • Jessica Ogden
  • Daulos Mauambeta
  • Nancy Gelman
  • Judy Oglethorpe
Review

Abstract

This article presents three cross-cutting intervention case studies that address HIV, AIDS, and natural resources management in an integrated manner through innovative programming in Zimbabwe, Uganda, and Malawi. In Zimbabwe, a religious-based non-governmental group and two community organizations work together to build skills of HIV- and AIDS-vulnerable children in rural areas to meet dietary and income needs, while using natural resources sustainably. In Uganda, various government agencies and NGO actors work together to improve the food security of HIV-affected households at the national, district, sub-district, and village levels. Finally, in Malawi, a conservation organization incorporates HIV and AIDS awareness and programming into its operations and projects. Each case study presents pioneering approaches to simultaneously addressing the pressures on conservation initiatives, food security/agricultural production, income generation/livelihoods, and social and health care systems. They also provide lessons for expanding interventions and partnerships.

Keywords

AIDS Africa Biodiversity Conservation Food security Gender Health HIV Integrated project Integrated development Land tenure Livelihood Malawi Uganda Zimbabwe 

References

  1. Alumira, J., & Sihoma-Moyo, T. (Eds.). (2005). Junior farmer field schools in Zimbabwe. Proceedings of a review and planning workshop, 16–17 Nov. 2004. Bulawayo, Zimbabwe: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, G., Skinner, D., & Zuma, K. (2006). Epidemiology of health and vulnerability among children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS Care, 18(3), 269–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bovarnick, A., & Gupta, A. (2003). Local business for global biodiversity conservation. New York: UNDP-GEF. http://www.undp.org/gef/undp-gef_publications/publications/localbus_globalbdconserv.pdf. Accessed April 25, 2008.
  4. Brown, J. S., & Duguid, P. (1991). Organizational learning and communities-of-practice: Toward a unified view of working, learning, and innovation. Organization Science, 2(1), 40–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Catholic Relief Services. (2008). CRS Zimbabwe junior farmer field school. Evaluation Report (Draft). Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  6. Cooley, L., & Kohl, R. (2006). Scaling up—from vision to large scale change: A management framework for Practitioners. Washington, DC: Management Systems International.Google Scholar
  7. Coon, K., Ogden, J., Odolon, J., Obudi-Owor, A., Otim, C., Byakigga, J., et al. (2007). Transcending boundaries to improve the food security of HIV-affected households in rural Uganda: A case study. Horizons Final Report. Washington, DC: Population Council.Google Scholar
  8. De Motts, R. (2008). An elephantine epidemic in the caprivi: Embedding HIV in the environment. Population and Environment, 29(3–4), in press.Google Scholar
  9. De Waal, A., & Whiteside, A. (2003). “New Variant Famine”: AIDS and food crisis in Southern Africa. The Lancet, 362, 1234–1237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Drimie, S. (2002). The impact of HIV/AIDS on rural households and land issues in Southern and Eastern Africa: A background paper for the food and agriculture organization sub-regional office for Southern and Eastern Africa. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/nonfao/ad696e/ad696e00.pdf. Accessed September 1, 2007.
  11. Du Guerny, J. (1999). AIDS and agriculture in Africa: Can agricultural policy make a difference? FNA/ANA 25. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/X4390t/X4390t03.pdf. Accessed April 25, 2008.
  12. Fanelli, C. W., & Mushunje, M. (2006). Child participation in education initiatives: A how-to guide. Harare, Zimbabwe: Catholic Relief Services.Google Scholar
  13. Fleischman, J., & Morrison, J. S. (2003). Fatal vulnerabilities: Reducing the acute risk of HIV/AIDS among women and girls. Washington, DC: CSIS HIV/AIDS Task Force, Center for Strategic and International Studies.Google Scholar
  14. Gelman, N., Oglethorpe, J., & Mauambeta, D. (2005). The impact of HIV/AIDS: How can it be anticipated and managed? PARKS, 15(1), 13–24.Google Scholar
  15. Gillespie, S. (Ed.). (2006). AIDS, poverty and hunger: Challenges and responses. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.Google Scholar
  16. Global Coalition on Women AIDS. (2006). Keeping the promise: An agenda for action on women and AIDS. Geneva: UNAIDS. http://data.unaids.org/pub/Booklet/2006/20060530_FS_Keeping_Promise_en.pdf. Accessed September 1, 2007.
  17. Government of the Republic of Malawi. (2003). National HIV/AIDS policy, a call to renewed action produced and published by Office of the President and Cabinet, National Aids Commission ISBN No. 99908-73-07-0.Google Scholar
  18. Government of the Republic of Malawi. (2007). Fisheries HIV & AIDS strategy. Lilongwe, Malawi: Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security.Google Scholar
  19. HASNET Uganda, HIV/AIDS and the Agriculture Sector Network, & Regional Network on AIDS. (2002). Rural livelihoods and food security networking for action: Report of the think tank and stakeholder workshop. Jinja, March 6–8 and 11, 2002. http://www.ifpri.org/renewal/pdf/HASNETwrks.pdf. Accessed April 25, 2008.
  20. International Center for Research on Women. (2004). To have and to hold: Women’s property and inheritance rights in the context of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. Washington, DC: ICRW.Google Scholar
  21. IUCN. (2005a). Benefits beyond boundaries. Proceedings of the Vth IUCN World Parks Congress. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.Google Scholar
  22. IUCN. (2005b). Proceedings of the Member’s Business Assembly. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.Google Scholar
  23. Jayne, T. S., Villarreal, M., Pingali, P., Hemrich, G. (2004). Interactions between the agricultural sector and the HIV/AIDS pandemic: Implications for agricultural policy. ESA Working Paper No. 04-06 March 2004. www.fao.org/es/esa. Accessed April 15, 2008.
  24. Kumchedwa, B. (2007). Department of National Parks and Wildlife, Malawi. Official unpublished data.Google Scholar
  25. Mauambeta, D. D. C. (2003a). HIV/AIDS mainstreaming in conservation: The case of Wildlife and Environmental Society of Malawi. http://www.frameweb.org/ev.php?ID=7559_201andID2=DO_TOPIC. Accessed April 25, 2008.
  26. Mauambeta, D. D. C. (2003b). Conservation in crisis: HIV/AIDS impacts and conservation-based mitigation measures. Limbe, Malawi: Wildlife and Environmental Society of Malawi.Google Scholar
  27. Mauambeta, D. D. C. (2004). Conservation and HIV/AIDS: Linkages, impacts and mitigation measures. Paper presented at the 3rd World Conservation Congress, “People and Nature, only one world.” Organized by the World Conservation Union (IUCN); Bangkok, Thailand (November 17–25, 2004).Google Scholar
  28. Mauambeta, D. D. C. (2005). WESM’s strategic plan for the period 2006–2010. Limbe, Malawi: Wildlife and Environmental Society of Malawi.Google Scholar
  29. Mauambeta, D. D. C. (2007a). Overview of the impacts of AIDS on conservation capacity and community based natural resource management. Presentation at the Society for Conservation Biology Annual Meeting, July 2007, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.Google Scholar
  30. Mauambeta, D. D. C. (2007b). HIV/AIDS impacts on biodiversity conservation and land in Southern Africa. Paper presented at the Southern Africa Sustainable Use Group Annual General Meeting, May 2007, Cape Town, South Africa.Google Scholar
  31. Office for the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (1990). UN convention on the rights of the child. http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/k2crc.htm. Accessed April 25, 2008.
  32. Oglethorpe, J., & Gelman, N. (2007). HIV/AIDS and the environment: The impacts of AIDS and ways to reduce them. Fact Sheet for the Conservation Community. WWF: 2007. http://www.abcg.org; http://www.worldwildlife.org/phe/pubs/hivaids.pdf. Accessed August 17, 2007.
  33. Oglethorpe, J., & Gelman, N. (2008). AIDS, women, land, and natural resources in Africa: Current challenges. Gender and Development, 16(1), 85–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Oglethorpe, J., & Mauambeta, D. (2008). HIV/AIDS, gender, and biodiversity: What’s the connection? Wildlife Conservation Society’s State of the Wild 2008–2009: A global portrait of wildlife, wildlands and oceans. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  35. Page, S. (2003). Impact of HIV/AIDS on natural resource management in Malawi. Doc. 55, April 2003. Bethesda, Maryland: Development Alternatives, Inc.Google Scholar
  36. PEPFAR. (2007). 2007 country profile: Malawi. http://www.pepfar.gov/pepfar/press/81881.htm. Accessed April 25, 2008.
  37. Rau, B., Dallabetta, G., & Forsythe, S. (2003). HIV/AIDS and the public sector workforce. Arlington, Virginia: Family Health International.Google Scholar
  38. Ravnborg, H. M., Boesen, J., Sørensen, A., Akello, Z., Bashaasha, B., Kasozi, S., et al. (2004). DIIS Working Paper (2004): I Gendered district poverty profiles and poverty monitoring Kabarole, Masaka, Pallisa, Rakai and Tororo districts, Uganda. Cophenhagen, Denmark: Danish Institute for International Studies.Google Scholar
  39. Torell, E., Kalangahe, B., Thaxton, M., Issa, A., Pieroth, V., Fahmy, O., et al. (2007). Guidelines for mitigating the impacts of HIV/AIDS on coastal biodiversity and natural resource management. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau.Google Scholar
  40. UNAIDS, World Bank, & UNDP. (2006). Mainstreaming HIV & AIDS in sectors & programmes: An implementation guide for national responses. Geneva: UNAIDS. http://www.undp.org/hiv/docs/MainstreamingB%5B1%5D.pdf. Accessed April 25, 2008.
  41. UNAIDS. (2006a). Report on the global AIDS epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS. www.unaids.org.
  42. UNAIDS. (2006b). Zimbabwe fact sheet. http://www.unaids.org/en/Regions_Countries/Countries/zimbabwe.asp. Accessed March 1, 2007.
  43. UNAIDS. (2006c). AIDS epidemic update: Special report on HIV & AIDS. Geneva: UNAIDS.Google Scholar
  44. UNAIDS. (2007). Malawi country profile. http://www.unaids.org/en/Regions_Countries/Countries/malawi.asp. Accessed April 25, 2008.
  45. United National Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) & World Health Organization (WHO). (2006). AIDS epidemic update. Geneva, Switzerland: UNAIDS and WHO.Google Scholar
  46. UNICEF & UNAIDS. (2006). Africa’s orphaned and vulnerable generations: Children affected by AIDS. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/AOVG_Report__prepublication_PDF.pdf. Accessed March 3, 2007.
  47. van den Berg, H. (2004). IPM farmer field schools; A synthesis of 25 impact evaluations. http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/ad487e/ad487e02.htm#2. Accessed September 28, 2007.
  48. Walker, L. (2002). “We Will Bury Ourselves”: A study of child-headed households on commercial farms in Zimbabwe. Farm Orphan Support Trust of Zimbabwe. http://www.synergyaids.com/documents/zimbabwe_children.pdf. Accessed February 26, 2007.
  49. Weick, K. E. (1999). Organizational change and development. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 361–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. WESM. (2008). Wildlife and environmental society of Malawi Website. http://www.wildlifemalawi.org. Accessed April 7, 2008.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger-Mark De Souza
    • 1
  • Geoff Heinrich
    • 2
  • Shannon Senefeld
    • 2
  • Katharine Coon
    • 3
  • Peter Sebanja
    • 4
  • Jessica Ogden
    • 3
  • Daulos Mauambeta
    • 5
  • Nancy Gelman
    • 6
  • Judy Oglethorpe
    • 7
  1. 1.Sierra ClubWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Catholic Relief ServicesBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.International Center for Research on WomenWashingtonUSA
  4. 4.The AIDS Support Organization of UgandaKampalaUganda
  5. 5.Wildlife and Environmental Society of MalawiLimbeMalawi
  6. 6.Africa Biodiversity Collaborative GroupWashingtonUSA
  7. 7.World Wildlife Fund-USWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations