Cue-Taking, Satisficing, or Both? Quasi-experimental Evidence for Ballot Position Effects

  • Thomas Däubler
  • Lukas Rudolph
Original Paper


Ballot position effects have been documented across a variety of political and electoral systems. In general, knowledge of the underlying mechanisms is limited. There is also little research on such effects in preferential-list PR systems, in which parties typically present ranked lists and thus signaling is important. This study addresses both gaps. Theoretically, we formalize four models of voter decision-making: pure appeal-based utility maximization, implying no position effects; rank-taking, where voters take cues from ballot position per se; satisficing, where choice is a function of appeal, but voters consider the options in the order of their appearance; and a hybrid “satisficing-with-rank-taking” variant. From these, we derive differential observable implications. Empirically, we exploit a quasi-experiment, created by the mixed-member electoral system that is used in the state of Bavaria, Germany. Particular electoral rules induce variation in both the observed rank and the set of competitors, and allow for estimating effects at all ranks. We find clear evidence for substantial position effects, which are strongest near the top, but discernible even for the 15th list position. In addition, a candidate’s vote increases when the average appeal of higher-placed (but not that of lower-placed) competitors is lower. Overall, the evidence is most compatible with the hybrid satisficing-with-rank-taking model. Ballot position thus affects both judgment and choice of candidates.


Ballot position effect Open-list PR Satisficing Bounded rationality Electoral systems 



We would like to thank Shaun Bowler, Alejandro Ecker, Anthony McGann, André Klima, Jon Krosnick, Moritz Marbach, Oliver Pamp and conference participants at EPSA and APSA 2017 for helpful comments. We are also grateful to Harald Schoen for valuable suggestions, to Harald Schoen and Thorsten Faas for sharing data, and to Ertan Bat for research assistance. Thomas Däubler acknowledges funding from the German Research Foundation, grant DA 1692/1-1. Lukas Rudolph acknowledges funding from the German Academic Scholarship Foundation. Replication materials are provided on

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (pdf 1974 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MannheimMannheimGermany
  2. 2.ETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.LMU MunichMunichGermany

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