The Electoral Consequences of Skin Color: The “Hidden” Side of Race in Politics
Despite the significant role that skin color plays in material well-being and social perceptions, scholars know little if anything about whether skin color and afrocentric features influence political cognition and behavior and specifically, if intraracial variation in addition to categorical difference affects the choices of voters. Do more phenotypically black minorities suffer an electoral penalty as they do in most aspects of life? This study investigates the impact of color and phenotypically black facial features on candidate evaluation, using a nationally representative survey experiment of over 2000 whites. Subjects were randomly assigned to campaign literature of two opposing candidates, in which the race, skin color and features, and issue stance of candidates was varied. I find that afrocentric phenotype is an important, albeit hidden, form of bias in racial attitudes and that the importance of race on candidate evaluation depends largely on skin color and afrocentric features. However, like other racial cues, color and black phenotype don’t influence voters’ evaluations uniformly but vary in magnitude and direction across the gender and partisan makeup of the electorate in theoretically explicable ways. Ultimately, I argue, scholars of race politics, implicit racial bias, and minority candidates are missing an important aspect of racial bias.
KeywordsRace Electoral politics Candidate evaluation Skin color Bias Black candidates
Data collection for this experiment was made possible by the Time-sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences (NSF Grant 0094964, Diana C. Mutz and Arthur Lupia, principle investigators). I am grateful to the following scholars for giving very useful feedback at various stages of the design of this study: Mahzarin Banaji, Michael Dawson, David Ellwood, Don Green, Jim Glaser, Jennifer Hochschild, Vince Hutchings, Shanto Iyengar, Jeff Jenkins, Taeku Lee, Amy Lerman, Rose McDermott, Tali Mendelberg, Katherine Newman, Mark Peffley, Lynn Sanders, John Sides, and Sid Verba. I thank Ethan Haymovitz for creating the morphed images. Thanks to TESS co-PIs Diana Mutz and Arthur Lupia and Knowledge Networks staff for improving the final protocol prior to fielding and for careful execution of the study.
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