Photonic Network Communications

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 285–299 | Cite as

FWM aware evolutionary programming algorithm for transparent optical networks

  • Urmila Bhanja
  • Sudipta Mahapatra
  • Rajarshi Roy


This paper proposes and evaluates a four-wave mixing (FWM) aware evolutionary programming algorithm for dynamically setting up lightpaths in an optical wavelength division multiplexed network (WDM network). The proposed algorithm also considers the effect of amplified spontaneous emission noise (ASE noise) on a lightpath during propagation of the optical signal from any source to the intended destination. As crosstalk due to FWM and ASE noise are two transmission impairments that degrade the quality of optical signal even at low to medium data rates, it is mandatory for an algorithm for dynamic routing and wavelength assignment in a WDM network to consider the effect of these two impairments on the lightpath to be established. The distinguishing feature of the proposed algorithm is that it is based on an initial population of a single individual and uses a fitness function that is expressed in terms of the number of hops, path cost, variance contributions due to FWM crosstalk, amplifier noise, and different beat noises at the receiver. The performance of a newly introduced FWM aware priority-based wavelength assignment technique is compared with few of the existing wavelength assignment techniques in the present work.


Evolutionary programming algorithm DRWA algorithm Nonlinear impairments Four-wave mixing ASE noise FWM aware priority-based wavelength assignment techniques 



Wavelength division multiplexing


Quality of transmission


Routing and wavelength assignment


Amplified spontaneous emission


Dense wavelength division multiplexing


Self-phase modulation


Four-wave mixing


Inter-symbol interference


Chromatic dispersion


Polarized mode dispersion


Filter concatenation


Bit error rate


Cross-phase modulation


Dynamic routing and wavelength assignment


Ant colony optimization


Quality of service


Wavelength routing nodes


Erbium doped fiber amplifier


Non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber


Cross-connect switch


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Urmila Bhanja
    • 1
  • Sudipta Mahapatra
    • 2
  • Rajarshi Roy
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Telecommunication EngineeringIndira Gandhi Institute of TechnologySarangIndia
  2. 2.Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication EngineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyKharagpurIndia

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