Structural Differences of BaTiO3 Ceramics Modified by Ultrasonic and Mechanochemical Methods
- 13 Downloads
Barium titanate powders were synthesized by the modified solid-state method with ultrasonic (5 min) and mechanochemical (12 h) deagglomeration methods. The structure of the samples was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the powders showed that using ultrasonic deagglomeration significantly decreased the particle size with perfect homogeneity in the shortest time. The particle size of the powders was calculated as 44.7 nm and 80.4 nm for ultrasonic and mechanochemical deagglomeration, respectively. The sintered pellet by ultrasonic method had no abnormal grain growth, and the grain sizes were between 10 and 30 μm. The pellet by mechanochemical method had an abnormal grain growth, and the grain sizes were between 10 and 100 μm. The results showed that ultrasonication remarkably improved the structure of the samples in the shortest time.
KeywordsBaTiO3 deagglomeration milling ultrasonication grain size
- 1.J. Kim, “Synthesis of porous (Ba, Sr)TiO3 ceramics and PTCR characteristics,” Mater. Chem. Phys., 78, No. 1, 154–159 (2002); http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S025405840200295X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.B. Guigues, J. Guillan, E. Defaÿ, P. Garrec, D. Wolozan, B. André, F. Laugier, R. Pantel, X. Gagnard, and M. Aïd, “SrTiO3/BaTiO3 multilayers thin films for integrated tunable capacitors applications,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 27, Nos. 13–15, 3851–3854 (2007); doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2007.02.043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.N.V. Dang, N.T. Dung, P.T. Phong, and I.-J. Lee, “Effect of Fe3+ substitution on structural, optical and magnetic properties of barium titanate ceramics,” Physica B: Condensed Matter, 457, 103–107 (2015). doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physb.2014.09.046.
- 6.C. Pecharroman, F. Esteban-Betegón, J.F. Bartolome, S. López-Esteban, and J.S. Moya, “New percolative BaTiO3 ± Ni composites with a high and frequency-independent dielectric constant (εr=80000), Adv. Mater., 13, No. 20, 1541–1544 (2001); doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-4095(200110)13:20<1541::AID-ADMA1541>3.0.CO;2-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.J.Q. Qi, T. Peng, Y.M. Hu, L. Sun, Y. Wang, W.P. Chen, L.T. Li, C.W. Nan, and H.L.W. Chan, “Direct synthesis of ultrafine tetragonal BaTiO3 nanoparticles at room temperature,” Nanoscale Research Letter, 6, 466, (2011); doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/1556-276X-6-466.
- 9.O.B. Miloševic, M.K. Mirkovic, and D.P. Uskokovic, “Characteristics and formation mechanism of BaTiO3 powders prepared by twin fluid and ultrasonic spray-pyrolysis methods,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 79, No. 6, 1720–1722. (1996); http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1151-2916.1996.tb08794.x/abstract.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.U. Manzoor and D. Kim, “Synthesis of nano-sized barium titanate powder by solid-state reaction between barium carbonate and titania,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 23, No. 5, 655–658 (2007).Google Scholar
- 14.S. Markovic, M. Miljkovic, C. Jovalekic, S. Mentus, and D. Uskokovic, “Densification, microstructure, and electrical properties of BaTiO3 (BT) ceramics prepared from ultrasonically de-agglomerated BT powders,” Mater. Manuf. Processes. 24, Nos. 10-11, 1114–1123 (2009); doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10426910903031750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.H.Z. Akbas, Z. Aydin, O. Yilmaz, and S. Turgut, “Effects of ultrasonication and conventional mechanical homogenization processes on the structures and dielectric properties of BaTiO3 ceramics,” Ultrason. Sonochem., 34, 873–880 (2017); doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2016.07.027.
- 17.H.Z. Akbas, Z. Aydin, I.H. Karahan, T. Dilsizoglu, and S. Turgut, “Effect of probe diameter on structure and morphological properties of TiO2 and ZrO2 powders in ultrasonication process,” Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Fen ve Mühendislik Dergisi, 18, No.54, 304–316 (2016)Google Scholar
- 18.J.-J. Gan, and W.-C.J. Wei, “Synthesis and dielectric properties of Niobia coating on BaTiO3,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technolology, 6, No. 6, 661–670, (2009); doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7402.2008.02301.x.
- 19.M. Ashokkumar, “The characterization of acoustic cavitation bubbles – An overview,” Ultrason. Sonochem., 18, No. 4, 864–872 (2011); http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1350417710002312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.M.A. Alavi, and A. Morsali, “Syntheses of BaCO3 nanostructures by ultrasonic method”, Ultrason. Sonochem., 15, No. 5, 833–838 (2008); http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1350417708000321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Infrared spectroscopy absorption table, last updated 2014; http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Reference/Reference_Tables/Spectroscopic_Parameters/Infrared_Spectroscopy_Absorption_Table(accessedMarch17,2016).
- 23.M. Trivedi, G. Nayak, S. Patil, R. Tallapragada, and O. Latiyal, “Impact of biofield treatment on atomic and structural characteristics of barium titanate powder,” Ind. Eng. Manage., 4, No. 3, 166 (2015); doi: https://doi.org/10.4172/2169-0316.1000166.
- 26.W.-S. Cho and E. Hamada, “Synthesis of ultrafine BaTiO3 particles from polymeric precursor: their structure and surface property,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 266, Nos. 1–2, 118–122 (1998); doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8388(97)00446-5.
- 27.V.P. Pavlovic, M.V. Nikolic, V.B. Pavlovic, N. Labus, L. Živkovic, and B.D. Stojanovic, “Correlation between densification rate and microstructure evolution of mechanically activated BaTiO3,” Ferroelectrics, 319, No. 1, 75–85 (2005); doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/00150190590965451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.B.D. Stojanovic, A.Z. Simoes, C.O. Paiva-Santos, C. Jovalekic, V.V. Mitic, and J.A. Varela, “Mechanochemical synthesis of barium titanate,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 25, No. 12, 1985–1989 (2005); doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2005.03.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.J.M.F. Ferreira, S.M. Olhero, and A. Kaushal, “Is the ubiquitous presence of barium carbonate responsible for the poor aqueous processing ability of barium titanate?” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 33, Nos. 13-14, 2509–2517 (2013); doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2013.05.010.