QTLs Related to Berry Acidity Identified in a Wine Grapevine Population Grown in Warm Weather
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The optimal balance between sugar and acidity is an essential criterion to elaborate equilibrated and stable wines. The aim of this study was to locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits using an F1 population derived from Monastrell and Syrah wine cultivars. Several parameters related to acidity were evaluated during six consecutive years by measuring total soluble solids, total acidity, malic acid, and tartaric acid. Three genetic maps were developed using 104 SSR (simple sequence repeat) and 146 SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) markers. The consensus map covered 1174 cM with 238 markers assembled in 19 linkage groups (LGs). Significant QTLs at the genome-wide level were detected, and, although they exhibited a large degree of instability from year to year, QTLs for the ratio of soluble solids to acidity (LG2) and malic acid (LG8) and the ratio of tartaric to malic acid (LG8) were stable in at least 2 years. Several annotated genes involved in sugar and acidity pathways co-located with the confidence intervals of these QTLs and are proposed as putative candidate genes for future studies of these traits.
KeywordsGenetic map Candidate genes Breeding Total acidity Malic acid Tartaric acid
The authors wish to thank A. Fuentes-Denia for technical assistance and J.A. Martínez-Jiménez for plant management in the field. We are also grateful to the research team of Dr. Stella Grando at the Centre for Research and Innovation, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), in San Michele all’Adige (Italy), for their help in the development of new SNP-based markers. A. Bayo-Canha was a pre-doctoral fellow of the Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario y Alimentario.
This study was financially supported by projects RTA2007-00043 and RTA2011-00029-C02-02 from the Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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