External Supplement of Impulsive Micromanager Trichoderma Helps in Combating CO2 Stress in Rice Grown Under FACE
- 42 Downloads
The present study aims to explore the alternative way to improve the quality and productivity of rice grown under CO2 stress through an external supplement of Trichoderma as a biofertilizer (BF). The impact of BF-treated rice under elevated CO2 (eCO2) was examined by different plant growth parameters, physiological observations, scanning electron microscopy, microbial community profiling and expression levels of stress-related genes. The effect of eCO2 on percent change in yielding attributes of rice (Heena and Kiran) was found higher in control, whereas it was reduced in the presence of BF. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate were higher in BF-treated rice under eCO2 condition. SEM analysis of BF-treated roots exhibits an increase in the number of metaxylem along with its diameter with thicker and rigid sclerenchymatous cells. Expression analysis of stress-related genes showed an increase in their mRNA transcripts under eCO2 condition. A significant change in the microbial community was found in the rhizospheric region of Heena treated with BF under eCO2. The current study demonstrates the potential of BF in ameliorating the stress generated as a result of CO2 enrichment.
KeywordsElevated CO2 FACE Microbial diversity SEM Stress genes T. reesei
The authors are grateful to Dr. P. N. Saxena (CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow) for SEM micrograph imaging.
This work is supported by funding from Science and Engineering Research Board, New Delhi (GAP3349), and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PSC0112).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest
- Agrawal L, Gupta S, Mishra SK, Pandey G, Kumar S, Chauhan PS, Chakrabarty D, Nautiyal CS (2016) Elucidation of complex nature of PEG induced drought-stress response in Rice root using comparative proteomics approach. Front Plant Sci 7:1466. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01466 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Ahmad P, Hashem A, Abd-Allah EF, Alqarawi AA, John R, Egamberdieva D, Gucel S (2015) Role of Trichoderma harzianum in mitigating NaCl stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L) through antioxidative defense system. Front Pl Sci 6:868Google Scholar
- Albrecht-Gary AM, Crumbliss AL (1998) Coordination chemistry of siderophores: thermodynamics and kinetics of iron chelation and release. Metal Ions Bio Sys 35:239–327Google Scholar
- Bae H, Roberts DP, Lim HS, Strem MD, Park SC, Ryu CM, Melnick RL, Bailey BA (2011) Endophytic Trichoderma isolates from tropical environments delay disease onset and induce resistance against Phytophthora capsici in hot pepper using multiple mechanisms. Mol Plant Microbe In 24:336–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Contreras-Cornejo HA, Macias-Rodriguez L, Alfaro-Cuevas R, Lopez-Bucio J (2014) Trichoderma spp. improve growth of Arabidopsis seedlings under salt stress through enhanced root development, Osmolite production, and Na+ elimination through root exudates. Mol Plant Microbe In 27:503–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- FAO (2015) FAO Rice Market Monitor.Google Scholar
- IPCC (2014) In: Edenhofer, O, R, P-M, Sokona Y, FE, S Kadner, S, A Adler, BI, BrunnerS, B, EP, Kriemann J, Savolainen S, Schlomer C von Stechow, Zwickel T, Minx JC (Eds), Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeGoogle Scholar
- Li RX, Cai F, Pang G, Shen QR, Li R, Chen W (2015) Solubilisation of phosphate and micronutrients by Trichoderma harzianum and its relationship with the promotion of tomato plant growth. PLoS One 10Google Scholar
- Mahfooz S, Singh SP, Rakh R, Bhattacharya A, Mishra N, Singh PC, Chauhan PS, Nautiyal CS, Mishra A (2016) A comprehensive characterization of simple sequence repeats in the sequenced Trichoderma genomes provides valuable resources for marker development. Frontiers in Microbiol 7:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mishra A, Nautiyal CS (2013) A novel recombinant strain of Trichoderma useful for enhancing nutritional value and growth of plantsGoogle Scholar
- Okubo T, Liu DY, Tsurumaru H, Ikeda S, Asakawa S, Tokida T, Tago K, Hayatsu M, Aoki N, Ishimaru K, Ujiie K, Usui Y, Nakamura H, Sakai H, Hayashi K, Hasegawa T, Minamisawa K (2015) Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect community structure of rice root-associated bacteria. Frontiers in Microbiol 6Google Scholar
- Rêgo M, Borges F, Filippi M, Gonçalves L, Silva G (2014) Morphoanatomical and biochemical changes in the roots of Rice plants induced by plant growth-promoting microorganisms. Journal of Bot 2014Google Scholar
- Zhu CW, Xu X, Wang D, Zhu JG, Liu G (2015) An indica rice genotype showed a similar yield enhancement to that of hybrid rice under free air carbon dioxide enrichment (vol 5, 12719, 2015). Sci Rep-Uk:5Google Scholar