Plant Molecular Biology Reporter

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 257–264 | Cite as

Knockdown of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) via Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Confers Yellow Coloration in Peach Fruit: Evaluation of Gene Function Related to Fruit Traits

  • Songling Bai
  • Pham Anh Tuan
  • Miho Tatsuki
  • Hideaki Yaegaki
  • Akemi Ohmiya
  • Chihiro Yamamizo
  • Takaya Moriguchi
Original Paper


Transgenic approach is an excellent way for the clarification of gene function, but it is generally difficult to create transgenic plants for most of the fruit trees including peach. Even if transgenic lines are successfully obtained, it will be extremely difficult to evaluate fruit traits due to the long juvenile phase of the plants. To overcome this problem, usage of virus vector is one of the excellent approaches. In this study, we evaluated gene function related to fruit traits in peaches via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) is proposed to be the key factor responsible for carotenoid degradation in white flesh peaches. Then, we knocked down the CCD4 gene in the white flesh peaches (“Akatsuki” and “Manami”) via VIGS system. Resultantly, yellow pigmentation and increased contents of carotenoids including lutein, ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and violaxanthin were observed in the agroinfiltration portions of the white flesh peaches, which is a direct evidence that CCD4 is a determinant for yellow flesh trait of peach. Our results suggested the possible application of VIGS system for functional studies of the genes related to fruit traits.


Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) Peach fruits Transgenic fruit tress Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) 



Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4


Quantitative reverse transcription PCR


Tobacco rattle virus


Virus-induced gene silencing



We would like to thank Dr. T. Peng (National Navel Orange Engineering Research Center, China) for her critical reading of the manuscript. We also express our thanks to Dr. S. P. Dinesh-Kumar for providing TRV1 and TRV2 vectors. This work was supported by a grant from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries of Japan (Genomics-based Technology for Agricultural Improvement, DHR3).

Supplementary material

11105_2015_920_Fig8_ESM.jpg (45 kb)
Supplementary Fig. S1

HPLC chromatograms of the carotenoid extracts obtained from the white flesh of peach “Akatsuki” harvested in 7 July with (A) or without (B) saponification. HPLC analysis was carried out according to Yamamizo et al. (2010). The identified peaks include: (1) allE-violaxanthin, (2) cis-lutein, (3) allE-lutein, (4) zeaxanthin, (5) β-cryptoxanthin, (6) β-carotene. (JPEG 44 kb)

11105_2015_920_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (10 kb)
Supplementary Table S1 (XLSX 10 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Songling Bai
    • 1
  • Pham Anh Tuan
    • 1
  • Miho Tatsuki
    • 1
  • Hideaki Yaegaki
    • 1
  • Akemi Ohmiya
    • 2
  • Chihiro Yamamizo
    • 2
  • Takaya Moriguchi
    • 1
  1. 1.NARO Institute of Fruit Tree ScienceTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.NARO Institute of Floricultural ScienceTsukubaJapan

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