Plant Molecular Biology Reporter

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 377–387 | Cite as

(Z)-3-Hexenal, One of the Green Leaf Volatiles, Increases Susceptibility of Rice to the White-Backed Planthopper Sogatella furcifera

  • Baohui Wang
  • Guoxin Zhou
  • Zhaojun Xin
  • Rui Ji
  • Yonggen Lou
Original Paper


Green leaf volatiles (GLVs), the products of the hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) branch of the oxylipin pathway, play important roles in plant defense responses to both insect pests and pathogens. However, little is known about the role of GLVs in the defense responses of rice to the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth)). Here, we found that the rice HPL gene OsHPL3 was upregulated in response to infestation by WBPH adults and nymphs. Using an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system, we obtained two homozygous lines with an antisense expression vector of OsHPL3 (as-hpl) and a single insertion that reduced the gene’s expression by 48.31–52.56 %. Biochemical assays revealed that as-hpl lines had lower wound-induced GLV levels, mainly (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (E)-2-hexenal, but higher JA levels, compared to wild-type (WT) plants. Biological assays showed that WBPH adult females and nymphs preferred to settle and/or oviposit on WT plants, where they survived better than on as-hpl plants. In addition, both male and female WBPH nymphs fed on as-hpl plants performed less well: they developed more slowly, and pairs subsequently laid fewer eggs compared to pairs fed on WT plants. The enhanced resistance of as-hpl plants to WBPH infestation mainly correlated with lower levels of GLVs, especially (Z)-3-hexenal. Collectively, these results indicated that WBPH infestation may enhance the susceptibility of rice by inducing the release of (Z)-3-hexenal.


Rice Sogatella furcifera Green leaf volatile (Z)-3-hexenal Hydroperoxide lyase Defense response 


as-hpl line

A line with antisense expression of OsHPL3


Brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)


Green leaf volatiles


Hydroperoxide lyase


Jasmonic acid


Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction


Salicylic acid


Striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis


White-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Horváth)




The bacterial blight Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae



We thank Emily Wheeler for editorial assistance. The study was jointly sponsored by the National Basic Research Program of China (2010CB126200), the National Program of Transgenic Variety Development of China (2011ZX08001-001), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31101451), and the China Agriculture Research System (CARS-01-21).

Supplementary material

11105_2014_756_MOESM1_ESM.doc (38 kb)
Appendix S1 Primers and probes used for qRT-PCR of target genes. (DOC 38 kb)
11105_2014_756_MOESM2_ESM.doc (208 kb)
Appendix S2 cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of rice OsHPL3 gene (AY340220). Start and stop codes (in red boxes) and region used for antisense transformation (red letters) are shown. (DOC 207 kb)
11105_2014_756_MOESM3_ESM.doc (75 kb)
Appendix S3 Rice transformation vector pCAMBIA-HPL (13.7 kb) with hyg and gus as plant selectable marker genes. (DOC 75 kb)
11105_2014_756_MOESM4_ESM.doc (37 kb)
Appendix S4 DNA gel-blot analysis of one WT line and two as-hpl T2 lines (L7-5 and L11-4). Genomic DNA was digested with EcoR I (E) or Xba I (X). The blot was hybridized with a probe (about 0.7 kb) specific for reporter gene gus. Hybridization was created using the DIG High Prime DNA Labeling and Detection Starter Kit II. All the as-hpl lines had a single insertion of the transgene. (DOC 37 kb)
11105_2014_756_MOESM5_ESM.doc (14.6 mb)
Appendix S5 Growth phenotypes of as-hpl lines and WT plants. There were no significant differences in two-week-old seedlings and plants at the tillering and heading stages between the as-hpl lines and WT plants. (DOC 14923 kb)
11105_2014_756_MOESM6_ESM.doc (100 kb)
Appendix S6 Expression levels (+SE) of OsHPL3 in stems of WT plants and two as-hpl lines without treatment and 12 h after mechanical wounding. There were significant differences between as-hpl lines and WT plants at 12 h (n = 5, Student’s t-test). Wound-induced transcript levels of OsHPL3 in L7-5 and L11-4 were about 47.44 and 51.69 % of those in WT plants 12 h after mechanical wounding. (DOC 99.5 kb)
11105_2014_756_MOESM7_ESM.doc (66 kb)
Appendix S7 Mean transcript levels (+SE) of OsHI-LOX (A), OsAOS1 (B), OsAOS2 (C) in as-hpl lines and WT plants after infestation by WBPH (n = 3-5). Letters indicate significant differences among treatments (P ≤ 0.05, Duncan’s multiple-range test). (DOC 66 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Baohui Wang
    • 1
  • Guoxin Zhou
    • 1
  • Zhaojun Xin
    • 1
  • Rui Ji
    • 1
  • Yonggen Lou
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Institute of Insect ScienceZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina

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