Patterns of Gene Duplication and Their Contribution to Expansion of Gene Families in Grapevine
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Grapevine is an important fruit crop that has undergone a long history of evolution. Analysis of the whole genome sequence of grapevine has revealed presence of an early palaeo-hexaploid along with three complements. Thus, gene duplication and genome expansion are common in this genome. In this study, we identified 17,922 duplicated genes in the whole grapevine genome. Among these, 2,039; 628; 1,428; 722; and 2,942 were identified respectively as produced by genome-wide, tandem, proximal, retrotransposed, and DNA-based transposed duplications. Analyses of the evolutionary patterns for different types of duplication using non-synonymous and synonymous substitution rates uncovered a series of underlying rules. Thereafter, all the grapevine genes were classified into families, and the contributions of different types of duplication to the expansion of large families were revealed. No duplication type was solely responsible for the formation of any large gene family, but some families showed enrichment of a special type of duplication. On the basis of this study, we believe that uncovering the underlying rules for gene duplications, expansions of gene families, and their evolutionary styles will contribute significantly to a comprehensive understanding of the features of the grapevine genome.
KeywordsGrapevine Gene duplication Genome expansion Evolution Gene family
Financial support for this work was provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC accession No.: 31171931) and the National Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province (No.: 2011CDB409).
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