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Effects of different inhibitors such as malonic acid, Na3PO4 and HgCl2 on uptake of different forms of antimony in rice plant

  • RenWei FengEmail author
  • Lei Lei
  • BiXiu Liu
  • WenXiang Chen
  • RuiRui Zhang
  • LiZhen Wang
  • YuanPing Li
  • JunMing Su
  • JiaXin Dai
  • RenJie Wang
  • ZiTing Lin
  • Ibtissem Ben Fekih
  • Sohaib H. Mazhar
  • Christopher RensingEmail author
Regular Article
  • 70 Downloads

Abstract

Background and aims

Antimony is an analogue of arsenic (As), but its uptake mechanisms are not as well understood as As. Antimonite [Sb(III)] probably enters into plant roots via aquaporins but antimonate [Sb(V)] not through the phosphate [P(V)] uptake system as with arsenate [As(V)]. However, previous studies observed a dose−dependent interaction between As(V) and P(V) in some plants. This study was conducted mainly to identify that 1) whether the uptake of Sb(III) by plants will be via aquaporin channels; 2) whether the interaction effects between Sb(V) and P(V) might be dose−dependent; 3) whether the uptake of Sb(III) or Sb(V) is at the cost of energy.

Methods

Two hydroponic culture systems were set up using a rice plant (YeXiangYou No.3) to investigate the effects of different chemicals on the uptake of Sb in the rice plants subjected to Sb(III) and Sb(V). These chemicals included malonic acid (C3H4O4), Na3PO4 [P(V)] and HgCl2.

Results

Sb was mainly sequestrated in the roots of the rice plants, suggesting a low transport capacity of Sb from roots to shoots. The plants took up Sb more easily under Sb(III) exposure than under Sb(V) exposure. 10 mg L−1 Sb(III) increased the Sb concentration in the bleeding sap rather than the weight of the bleeding sap; but the situation reversed when rice plants were exposed to Sb(V), suggesting different transport mechanisms of Sb from roots to shoots between Sb(III) and Sb(V). The addition of C3H4O4 generally reduced the Sb concentrations in the shoots and roots subjected to Sb(V), suggesting the uptake of Sb(V) to be energy dependent. The addition of Na3PO4 also significantly reduced the concentrations of Sb in the shoots and roots when plants were exposed to Sb(V). Interestingly, the addition of HgCl2 significantly reduced the concentrations of Sb in the shoots and roots when rice plants were exposed to both Sb(III) or Sb(V), possibly implying that uptake of Sb(III) might be via aquaporins and Cl played a role in affecting the uptake of Sb(V).

Conclusions

The results of this study suggested that uptake of Sb(III) is via aquaporins, and Cl as well as PO43− may compete with Sb(V) for uptake pathway.

Keywords

Bleeding sap Antimonite Antimonate Inhibitors Uptake mechanisms 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (41473114, 41877497).

Supplementary material

11104_2019_4296_MOESM1_ESM.docx (22 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 21 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • RenWei Feng
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lei Lei
    • 2
    • 3
  • BiXiu Liu
    • 1
  • WenXiang Chen
    • 1
  • RuiRui Zhang
    • 1
  • LiZhen Wang
    • 1
  • YuanPing Li
    • 1
  • JunMing Su
    • 1
  • JiaXin Dai
    • 1
  • RenJie Wang
    • 1
  • ZiTing Lin
    • 1
  • Ibtissem Ben Fekih
    • 1
  • Sohaib H. Mazhar
    • 1
  • Christopher Rensing
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental Microbiology, College of Resources and EnvironmentFujian Agriculture & Forestry UniversityFuzhouChina
  2. 2.Agricultural CollegeGuangxi UniversityNanningChina
  3. 3.Institute of Agro-Environmental ProtectionThe Ministry of AgricultureTianJinChina

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