Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 444, Issue 1–2, pp 213–224 | Cite as

The cost of depth: frost avoidance trade-offs in herbaceous plants

  • Frederick Curtis LubbeEmail author
  • Hugh A. L. Henry
Regular Article

Abstract

Aims

The positioning of bulbs and stem tubers deep in soil can decrease frost exposure, yet it can come at the cost of increased investment to reach the surface, and delayed emergence. We explored the strength and generality of this trade-off for a range of herbaceous, temperate species.

Methods

To isolate the direct effects of soil depth on plant growth and survival from the effects of variation in frost exposure, one set of plants buried over winter at three depths experienced either ambient or increased frost (via snow removal), another set sheltered from winter frost stress was buried at three depths in spring, and a third set was exposed to freezing under controlled conditions.

Results

Growth generally increased with organ soil depth under increased frost. However, for many species, spring-planted organs exhibited a trade-off of decreased aboveground leaf biomass with greater organ depth. Increased freezing exposure alone generally decreased survival, with sub-lethal effects (particularly decreased leaf biomass) observed for some species.

Conclusions

Our results highlight that optimal bud depth is influenced by trade-offs between frost avoidance and plant growth. The balance of this trade-off may shift in coming decades with reduced snow cover and resulting increases in soil frost exposure.

Keywords

Belowground Clonal Depth Frost avoidance Geophyte Herbaceous 

Notes

References

  1. Barnes G (2010) Soil mechanics: Principles and practice, 3rd edn. Palgrave Macmillan, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baseggio M, Newman Y, Sollenberger LE, Fraisse C, Obreza T (2015) Planting rate and depth effects on Tifton 85 bermudagrass establishment using rhizomes. Crop Sci 55(3):1338–1345.  https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2014.09.0605 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bertrand A, Castonguay Y (2003) Plant adaptations to overwintering stresses and implications of climate change. Can J Bot 81(12):1145–1152.  https://doi.org/10.1139/b03-129 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Box EO (1996) Plant Functional Types and Climate at the Global Scale. J Veg Sci 7(3):309–320.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3236274 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boydston RA, Seymour MD, Brown CR, Alva AK (2006) Freezing behavior of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers in Soil. Am J Potato Res. 83:305–315.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02871591 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Breck’s (2013) Breck’s planting handbook. Garden’s Alive IncGoogle Scholar
  7. Cavins TJ, Dole JM (2002) Precooling, planting depth, and shade affect cut flower quality and perennialization of field-grown spring bulbs. Hortscience 37(1):9–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davik J, Koehler G, From B, Torp T, Rohloff J, Eidem P, Wilson RC, Sønsteby A, Randall SK, Alsheikh M (2013) Dehydrin, alcohol dehydrogenase, and central metabolite levels are associated with cold tolerance in diploid strawberry (Fragaria spp.). Planta 237(1):265–277.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-012-1771-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. de Melo Peixoto M, Friesen PC, Sage RF (2015) Winter cold-tolerance thresholds in field- grown Miscanthus hybrid rhizomes. J Exp Bot 66(14):4415–4425.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erv093 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goulet F (1995) Frost heaving of forest tree seedlings: a review. New For. 9:67–94.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00028927 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grime JP (1977) Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. Am Nat 111(982):1169–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Groffman PM, Driscoll CT, Fahey TJ, Hardy JP, Fitzhugh RD, Tierney GL (2001) Colder soils in a warmer world: a snow manipulation study in a northern hardwood forest ecosystem. Biogeochemistry 56:135–150.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1013039830323 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hagerty TP, Kingston MS (1992) The soils of middlesex county. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Map 3Google Scholar
  14. Henry HAL (2007) Soil Freeze–thaw cycle experiments: trends, methodological weaknesses and suggested improvements. Soil. Biol. Biochem. 39(5):977–986.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.11.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. JMP®, Version 4. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, 1989-2002Google Scholar
  16. Kleyer M, Minden V (2015) Why functional ecology should consider all plant organs: an allocation-based perspective. Basic Appl Ecol 16(1):1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2014.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Klimešová J (2018) Temperate herbs: an architectural analysis. Academia, PrahaGoogle Scholar
  18. Klimešová J, Tackenberg O, Herben T (2015) Herbs are different: clonal and bud bank traits can matter more than leaf–height–seed traits. New Phytol 210:13–17.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.13788 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Komac B, Pladevall C, Peñuelas J, Conesa JV, Domènech M (2015) Variations in functional diversity in snowbed plant communities determining snowbed continuity. Plant Ecol 216(9):1257–1274.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-015-0506-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Malyshev AV, Henry HAL (2012) N uptake and growth responses to sub-lethal freezing in the grass Poa pratensis L. Plant Soil 360(1-2):175–185.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-012-1233-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Native Plant Trust. (2019) Go Botany (3.1.1). https://gobotany.nativeplanttrust.org/. Accessed 12 July 2019.
  22. Okubo H, Sochacki D (2013) Ornamental geophytes: from basic science to sustainable production. In: Kamenetsky R, Okubo H. (eds) Botanical and horticultural aspects of major ornamental geophytes. Taylor & Francis Group LLC, Boca Raton, pp 77–121Google Scholar
  23. Pan Y, Geng YP, Li B, Chen JK (2009) Effect of root fragment length and planting depth on clonal establishment of alligatorweed. J Aquat Plant Manag 47:96–100Google Scholar
  24. Pearce R (2001) Plant Freezing and Damage. Annals of Botany 87(4):417–424.  https://doi.org/10.1006/anbo.2000.1352 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Porter LD, Dasgupta N, Johnson DA (2005) Effects of tuber depth and soil moisture on infection of potato tubers in soil by Phytophthora infestans. Plant Dis 89(2):146–152.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PD-89-0146 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Qodliyati M, Supriyono NS (2018) Influence of spacing and depth of planting to growth and yield of arrowroot (Marantha arundinacea). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental. Science 142(March):12035.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/142/1/012035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Raunkiær C (1934) The Life Forms of Plants and Statistical Plant Geography. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  28. Rockwell FF, Grayson EC. (1953) Doubleday & Company, Garden CityGoogle Scholar
  29. Santamaria L, Rodríguez-Gironés MA (2002) Hiding from swans: optimal burial depth of sago pondweed tubers foraged by Bewick’s swans. J. Ecol. 90(2):303–315.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.2001.00668.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sharratt BS (2002) Corn stubble height and residue placement in the northern US corn belt: Part I. Soil Physical Environment During Winter. Soil Tillage Res 64(3–4):243–252.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S10167-1987(01)00260-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Simons AM, Goulet JM, Bellehumeur KF (2010) The effect of snow depth on overwinter survival in Lobelia inflata. Oikos 119(10):1685–1689.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18515.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Suzuki J, Stuefer J (1999) On the ecological and evolutionary significance of storage in clonal plants. Plant Species Biol 14(1):11–17.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1442-1984.1999.00002.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Swanton CJ, Cavers PB, Clements DR, Moore MJ (1992) The biology of Canadian weeds. 101 . Helianthus tuberosus L. Can. J. Plant. Sci. 72:1367–1382.  https://doi.org/10.4141/cjps92-169 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. USDA. (2019) Plants Database. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov/java/. Accessed 12 July 2019.
  35. Vallejo-Marín M, Dorken ME, Barrett SCH (2010) The ecological and evolutionary consequences of clonality for plant mating. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Systematics 41(1):193–213.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.110308.120258 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vesk PA, Westoby M (2004) Sprouting by plants: the effects of modular organization. Funct Ecol 18(6):939–945.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0269-8463.2004.00899.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vesk PA, Warton DI, Westoby M (2004) Sprouting by semi-arid plants: testing a dichotomy and predictive traits. Oikos 107(1):72–89.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0030-1299.2004.13122.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Way DA, Montgomery RA (2015) Photoperiod constraints on tree phenology, performance and migration in a warming world: photoperiod limits on tree climate responses. Plant Cell Environ 38(9):1725–1736.  https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.12431 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Weih M, Karlsson PS (2002) Low winter soil temperature affects summertime nutrient uptake capacity and growth rate of mountain birch seedlings in the subarctic, Swedish Lapland. Arct, Antarct Alp Res 34(4):434.  https://doi.org/10.2307/15522 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wisnieski M, Willick IR, Gusta LV (2017) Freeze tolerance and avoidance in plants. In: Shabala S (ed) Plant stress physiology. CABI, Oxfordshire, pp 279–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Western OntarioRichmondCanada

Personalised recommendations