Advertisement

Warming effects on soil respiration in moss-dominated crusts in the Tengger Desert, northern China

  • Chao Guan
  • Xinrong LiEmail author
  • Ning Chen
  • Peng Zhang
  • Changming Zhao
Regular Article
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

Background and aims

Despite the important role of biological soil crusts in the soil carbon cycles of desert ecosystems, the responses of soil respiration in biological soil crust-dominated areas to warming are not well understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the expected increases in temperature on soil respiration both diurnally and seasonally in biological soil crust-dominated areas.

Methods

We used open-top chambers to simulate warming in the Shapotou region in the Tengger Desert, northern China. An automated soil respiration system was used to measure the soil respiration rates in moss-dominated crusts. The measured environmental variables included the precipitation, volumetric soil water content, air temperature and soil temperature at depths of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cm.

Results

The response of soil respiration to warming is a function of soil moisture following rainfall in desert ecosystems. Our results showed that 1.5 °C of simulated warming significantly decreased soil respiration, indicating that the inhibition of soil respiration was likely due to the reduction in soil water content at a relatively high temperature. Over daily cycles, hourly soil respiration rates have commonly been related to hourly temperatures. The observed diel hysteresis between hourly soil respiration and temperature resulted in semielliptical hysteresis loops, and the temperature often lagged behind soil respiration for several hours. The lag times between soil respiration and temperature were significantly and positively related to the depth of the soil temperature measurements. The proximate reason for the diel hysteresis between soil respiration and temperature was likely a mismatch between the depth of CO2 production and the depth of the temperature measurements.

Conclusions

Our results indicate that warming increases the response of soil respiration to soil water availability in biological soil crust-dominated desert ecosystems. Therefore, the accelerated drying effect of warming on soil respiration and diel soil respiration patterns between soil respiration and temperature at different depths should be considered in future soil carbon cycle models for biological soil crust-dominated desert ecosystems.

Keywords

Soil respiration Biological soil crust Warming Temperature Diel hysteresis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge Editor Dr. Matthew A. Bowker and three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments for improving the manuscript. This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41530746).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The authors declare that this paper does not contain any study with human participants or animals.

Supplementary material

11104_2019_4255_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (284 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 283 kb)

References

  1. Algayer B, Wang B, Bourennane H, Zheng F, Duval O, Li G, Le Bissonnais Y, Darboux F (2014) Aggregate stability of a crusted soil: differences between crust and sub-crust material, and consequences for interrill erodibility assessment. An example from the loess plateau of China. Eur J Soil Science 65:325–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allison SD, Treseder KK (2008) Warming and drying suppress microbial activity and carbon cycling in boreal forest soils. Glob Chang Biol 14:2898–2909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Belnap J, Lange OL (2003) Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, vol 150Google Scholar
  4. Belnap J, Weber B, Büdel B (2016) Biological soil crusts as an organizing principle in drylands. In: Weber B, Büdel B, Belnap J (eds) biological soil crusts: an organizing principle in drylands, ecological studies 226. Springer international publishing, pp 3–13Google Scholar
  5. Büdel B, Colesie C, Green TGA, Grube M, Suau RL, Loewen-Schneider K, Maier S, Peer T, Pintado A, Raggio J, Ruprecht U, Sancho LG, Schroeter B, Türk R, Weber B, Wedin M, Westberg M, Williams L, Zheng L (2014) Improved appreciation of the functioning and importance of biological soil crusts in Europe: the soil crust international project (SCIN). Biodivers Conserv 23:1639–1658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Castillo-Monroy A, Maestre F, Rey A, Soliveres S, García-Palacios P (2011) Biological soil crust microsites are the main contributor of soil respiration in a semiarid ecosystem. Ecosystems 14:835–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chamizo S, Rodríguez-Caballero E, Románc JR, Cantón Y (2017) Effects of biocrust on soil erosion and organic carbon losses under natural rainfall. Catena 148:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Darrouzet-Nardi A, Reed SC, Grote EE, Belnap J (2015) Observations of net soil exchange of CO2 in a dryland show experimental warming increases carbon losses in biocrust soils. Biogeochemistry 126(3):363–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Delgado-Baquerizo M, Morillas L, Maestre FT, Gallardo A (2013) Biocrusts control the nitrogen dynamics and microbial functional diversity of semi-arid soils in response to nutrient additions. Plant Soil 372:643–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elbert W, Weber B, Burrows S, Steinkamp J, Büdel B, Andreae MO, Pösch U (2012) Contribution of cryptogamic covers to the global cycles of carbon and nitrogen. Nat Geosci 3:1–4Google Scholar
  11. Escolar C, Martínez I, Bowker MA, Maestre FT (2012) Warming reduces the growth and diversity of biological soil crusts in a semi-arid environment: implications for ecosystem structure and functioning. Phil Trans R Soc B 367:3087–3099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fang C, Ye JS, Gong YH, Pei JY, Yuan ZQ, Xie C, Zhu YS, Yu YY (2017) Seasonal responses of soil respiration to warming and nitrogen addition in a semi-arid alfalfa-pasture of the loess plateau, China. Sci Total Environ 590–591:729–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fang C, Li FM, Pei JY, Ren J, Gong YH, Yuan ZQ, Ke WB, Zheng Y, Bai XK, Ye JS (2018) Impacts of warming and nitrogen addition on soil autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration in a semi-arid environment. Agric For Meteorol 248:449–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gao Q, Bai E, Wang JS, Zheng ZM, Xia JY, You WH (2018) Effects of litter manipulation on soil respiration under short-term nitrogen addition in a subtropical evergreen forest. Forest Ecol Manag 429:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. García-Palacios P, Escolar C, Dacal M, Delgado-Baquerizo M, Gozalo B, Ochoa V, Maestre FT (2018) Pathways regulating decreased soil respiration with warming in a biocrust-dominated dryland. Glob Chang Biol 24:4645–4656.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14399 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gaumont-Guay D, Black TA, Griffis TJ, Barr AG, Jassal RS, Nesic Z (2006) Interpreting the dependence of soil respiration on soil temperature and water content in a boreal aspen stand. Agric For Meteorol 140:220–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grossiord C, Sevanto S, Adams HD, Collins AD, Dickman LT, McBranch N, Michaletz ST, Stockton EA, Vigil M, McDowell NG, Huenneke L (2017) Precipitation, not air temperature, drives functional responses of trees in semi-arid ecosystems. J Ecol 105(1):163–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grote EE, Belnap J, Housman DC, Sparks JP (2010) Carbon exchange in biological soil crust communities under differential temperatures and soil water contents: implications for global change. Glob Chang Biol 16:2763–2774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guan C, Li X, Zhang P, Chen Y (2018) Diel hysteresis between soil respiration and soil temperature in a biological soil crust covered desert ecosystem. PLoS One 13(4):e0195606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Guan C, Li XR, Zhang P, Li CH (2019) Effect of global warming on soil respiration and cumulative carbon release in biocrust-dominated areas in the Tengger Desert, northern China. J Soils Sediments 19:1161–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Housman DC, Powers HH, Collins AD, Belnap J (2006) Carbon and nitrogen fixation differ between successional stages of biological soil crusts in the Colorado plateau and Chihuahuan Desert. J Arid Environ 66:620–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hu R, Wang XP, Pan YX, Zhang YF, Zhang H, Chen N (2015) Seasonal variation of net N mineralization under different biological soil crusts in Tengger Desert, North China. Catena 127:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jia X, Zha TS, Wu B, Zhang YQ, Chen WJ, Wang XP, Yu HQ, He GM (2013) Temperature response of soil respiration in a Chinese pine plantation: hysteresis and seasonal vs. diel Q10. PLoS ONE 8:e57858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jiang ZY, Li XY, Wei JQ, Chen HY, Li ZC, Liu L, Hu X (2018) Contrasting surface soil hydrology regulated by biological and physical soil crusts for patchy grass in the high-altitude alpine steppe ecosystem. Geoderma 326:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kuzyakov Y, Gavrichkova O (2010) Time lag between photosynthesis and carbon dioxide efflux from soil: a review of mechanisms and controls. Glob Chang Biol 16:3386–3406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lai ZR, Lu S, Zhang YQ, Wu B, Qin SG, Feng W, Liu JB, Fa KY (2016) Diel patterns of fine root respiration in a dryland shrub, measured in situ over different phenological stages. J Forest Res 21:31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lane RW, Menon M, McQuaid JB, Adams DG, Thomas AD, Hoon SR, Dougill AJ (2013) Laboratory analysis of the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on respiration in biological soil crusts. J Arid Environ 98:52–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Li XR, Xiao HL, Zhang JG, Wang XP (2004) Long-term ecosystem effects of sand-binding vegetation in the Tengger Desert, northern China. Restor Ecol 12:376–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li XR, Kong DS, Tan HJ, Wang XP (2007) Changes in soil and vegetation following stabilization of dunes in the southeastern fringe of the Tengger Desert, China. Plant Soil 300:221–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li XR, Tian F, Jia RL, Zhang ZS, Liu YB (2010) Do biological soil crusts determine vegetation changes in sandy deserts? Implications for managing artificial vegetation. Hydrol Process 24:3621–3630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Li XR, Zhang P, Su YG, Jia RL (2012) Carbon fixation by biological soil crusts following stabilization of sand dune in arid desert regions of China: a four-year field study. Catena 97:119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Li XR, Jia RL, Zhang ZS, Zhang P, Hui R (2018) Hydrological response of biological soil crusts to global warming: a ten-year simulative study. Glob Chang Biol 24:4960–4971.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14378 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu Z, Zhang Y, Fa K, Qin S, She W (2017) Rainfall pulses modify soil carbon emission in a semiarid desert. Catena 155:147–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Luo YQ, Zhou XH (2006) Soil respiration and the environment. Academic Press, An imprint of ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  35. Maestre FT, Escolar C, de Guevara ML, Quero JL, Lázaro R, Delgado-Baquerizo M, Ochoa V, Berdugo M, Gozalo B, Gallardo A (2013) Changes in biocrust cover drive carbon cycle responses to climate change in drylands. Glob Chang Biol 19:3835–3847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marion GM, Ghr H, Freckman DW, Johnstone J, Jones G, Jones MH, Lévesque E, Molau U, Mølgaard P, Parson AN, Svoboda J, Virginia RA (1997) Open-top designs for manipulating field temperature in high-latitude ecosystems. Glob Chang Biol 3:20–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Phillips CL, Nickerson N, Risk D, Bond BJ (2011) Interpreting diel hysteresis between soil respiration and temperature. Glob Chang Biol 17:515–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Qing DH (2002) An integrated report on the evaluation of environmental changes of western China. Science Press, Beijing, pp 56–60Google Scholar
  39. Raich JW, Potter CS, Bhawagati D (2002) Interannual variability in global soil respiration, 1980–1994. Glob Chang Biol 8:800–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Reynolds LL, Johnson BR, Pfeifer-Meister L, Bridgham SD (2015) Soil respiration response to climate change in Pacific northwest prairies is mediated by a regional Mediterranean climate gradient. Glob Change Biol 21(1):487–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Riveros-Iregui DA, Emanuel RE, Muth DJ, McGlynn BL, Epstein HE, Welsch DL, Pacific VJ, Wraith JM (2007) Diurnal hysteresis between soil CO2 and soil temperature is controlled by soil water content. Geophys Res Lett 34:L17404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rodriguez-Caballero E, Belnap J, Büdel B, Crutzen PJ, Andreae MO, Pöschl U, Weber B (2018) Dryland photoautotrophic soil surface communities endangered by global change. Nat Geosci 11:85–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sharkhuu A, Plante AF, Enkhmandal O, Gonneau C, Casper BB, Boldgiv B, Petraitis PS (2016) Soil and ecosystem respiration responses to grazing, watering and experimental warming chamber treatments across topographical gradients in northern Mongolia. Geoderma 269:91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sheik CS, Beasley WH, Elshahed MS, Zhou X, Luo Y, Krumholz LR (2011) Effect of warming and drought on grassland microbial communities. ISME J 5(10):1692–1700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shen ZX, Li YL, Fu G (2015) Response of soil respiration to short-term experimental warming and precipitation pulses over the growing season in an alpine meadow on the northern Tibet. Appl Soil Ecol 90:35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Su YG, Zhao X, Li AX, Li XR, Huang G (2011) Nitrogen fixation in biological soil crusts from the Tengger Desert, northern China. Eur J Soil Biol 47:182–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tang J, Baldocchi DD, Xu L (2005) Tree photosynthesis modulates soil respiration on a diurnal time scale. Glob Chang Biol 11:1298–1304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thomas AD (2012) Impact of grazing intensity on seasonal variations in soil organic carbon and soil CO efflux in two semiarid grasslands in southern Botswana. Phil Trans R Soc B 367:3076–3086Google Scholar
  49. Tucker CL, Mchugh TA, Howell A, Gill R, Weber B, Belnap J, Grote E, Reed SC (2017) The concurrent use of novel soil surface microclimate measurements to evaluate CO2 pulses in biocrusted interspaces in a cool desert ecosystem. Biogeochemistry 135:239–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tucker CL, Ferrenberg S, Reed SC (2019) Climatic sensitivity of dryland soil CO2 fluxes differs dramatically with biological soil crust successional state. Ecosystems 22:15–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vargas R, Allen MF (2008) Environmental controls and the influence of vegetation type, fine roots and rhizomorphs on diel and seasonal variation in soil respiration. New Phytol 179:460–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vargas R, Baldocchi DD, Allen MF, Bahn M, Black TA, Collins SL, Yuste JC, Hirano T, Jassal PS, Pumpanen J, Tang J (2010) Looking deeper into the soil: biophysical controls and seasonal lags of soil CO2 production and efflux. Ecol Appl 20:1569–1582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wang B, Zha TS, Jia X, Wu B, Zhang YQ, Qin SG (2014) Soil moisture modifies the response of soil respiration to temperature in a desert shrub ecosystem. Biogeosciences 11:259–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wertin TM, Belnap J, Reed SC (2017) Experimental warming in a dryland community reduced plant photosynthesis and soil CO2 efflux although the relationship between the fluxes remained unchanged. Funct Ecol 31:297–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wohlfahrt G, Fenstermaker LF, Arnone JA III (2008) Large annual net ecosystem CO2 uptake of a Mojave Desert ecosystem. Glob Chang Biol 14:1475–1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Xiao B, Suna F, Hua K, Kidron GJ (2019) Biocrusts reduce surface soil infiltrability and impede soil water infiltration under tension and ponding conditions in dryland ecosystem. J Hydrol 568:792–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhang Z, Dong Z, Zhao A, Yuan W, Han L (2008) The effect of restored microbiotic crusts on erosion of soil from a desert area in China. J Arid Environ 72:710–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhang ZS, Li XR, Nowak RS, Wu P, Gao YH, Zhao Y, Huang L, Hu YG, Jia RL (2013) Effect of sand-stabilizing shrubs on soil respiration in a temperate desert. Plant Soil 367:449–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhong Y, Yan W, Zong Y, Shangguan Z (2016) Biotic and abiotic controls on the diel and seasonal variation in soil respiration and its components in a wheat field under long-term nitrogen fertilization. Field Crop Res 199:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, School of Life SciencesLanzhou UniversityLanzhouChina
  2. 2.Shapotou Desert Research and Experimental Station, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and ResourcesChinese Academy of SciencesLanzhouChina

Personalised recommendations