Plant and Soil

, Volume 444, Issue 1–2, pp 71–85 | Cite as

Litter-driven feedbacks influence plant colonization of a high elevation early successional ecosystem

  • Clifton P. Bueno de MesquitaEmail author
  • Steven K. Schmidt
  • Katharine N. Suding
Regular Article



Plant-microbe interactions are crucial components of ecosystem development but are understudied during early succession. The goal of this study was to investigate species-specific effects of plants on unvegetated soils being colonized by plants as climate changes, and assess how plant-soil feedbacks influence plant succession.


We used lab and field litter additions in an early successional unvegetated ecosystem in the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains to examine litter-driven changes in soil bacterial and fungal communities. We then used plant litter-trained soil as inocula in a greenhouse experiment to test plant-soil feedbacks.


We found species-specific effects of litter additions on bacterial and fungal communities in unvegetated soils, which are likely due to both differences in tissue litter chemistry and differences in the litter microbiome. We identified a negative effect of soil trained by litter from the conservative forb Silene acaulis on the growth of the fast-growing bunchgrass Deschampsia cespitosa, likely due to changes in microbial communities that resulted in lowered nitrification rates or to a litter-driven increase in N-immobilization.


Our study demonstrates the importance of plant specificity and potential negative litter-driven feedbacks in primary succession, which could lead to patchy distribution of plant colonists as climate change allows colonization of these areas.


Plant-microbe interactions Succession Plant-soil feedback Litter 



We thank Elise Castle for help in the greenhouse, Piper Dumont for help in the lab, Anna Wright for help in the field, and Sam Sartwell for help in the lab and field. Marko Spasojevic and Sören Weber provided foliar C:N data. We thank Bill Bowman, Noah Fierer and Dan Doak for feedback on this experiment. Logistical support was provided by the Niwot Ridge LTER program (NSF DEB 1637686) and CU Mountain Research Station. Funding was provided by NSF grant DEB 1457827 to KNS and SKS. We would also like to acknowledge the suggestions of two anonymous reviewers, whose input greatly improved this manuscript.

Supplementary material

11104_2019_4242_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.5 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1.50 mb)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Arctic and Alpine ResearchUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA

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