Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 443, Issue 1–2, pp 233–244 | Cite as

Phosphorus speciation and bioavailability in diverse biochars

  • Terry J. RoseEmail author
  • Cassandra Schefe
  • Zhe (Han) Weng
  • Michael T. Rose
  • Lukas van Zwieten
  • Lei Liu
  • Andrew L. Rose
Regular Article
  • 235 Downloads

Abstract

Background and aims

Erosion of phosphorus (P)-rich soil into waterways is a major contributor to eutrophication. To minimize the build-up of P in agricultural soils, greater knowledge of the bioavailability and fate of P from soil amendments is required.

Methods

We used X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy to resolve the major P species in nine diverse biochars. We then examined the relationship between biochar P extracted using a range of typical soil (water, Bray2 and Colwell) and plant (2% citric acid, and 2% formic acid) assays. We compared these with ryegrass P uptake via bioassay.

Results

Linear combination fitting indicated Al-phosphate (variscite) was the dominant P species in biochars derived from cattle feedlot manure, sugarcane trash and sugarcane bagasse, reflecting the likely Al content of the feedstock. Non-apatite Ca-phosphates (monocalcium phosphate or CaHPO4) were the major P species in poultry litter, green waste, papermill sludge, wheat chaff, sugarcane mill mud and rice husk biochars. Biochar P was poorly water soluble but largely soluble in weak acids (formic and citric acids). Despite this, biochar P extracted by citric and formic acid was a poor predictor of P bioavailability to ryegrass, with the percentage of total P extracted by water or by the Bray2 reagent providing the best prediction of ryegrass P uptake.

Conclusions

The P in biochar was identified by XANES spectroscopy as predominantly Ca and/or Al-P. Water and Bray2 extraction provided the best predictors of plant available P from biochars in a plant bioassay.

Keywords

Bioavailability Biochar Phosphorus XANES 

Notes

Acknowledgements

X-ray absorption spectroscopy was funded by a beamtime award to LL, TJR and ALR by the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Taiwan (proposal 2013-3-037-1). We thank the beamline scientist, Dr. LY (Peter) Jang, for his assistance with the XANES measurements.

Author contributions

The manuscript was written through contributions of all authors. All authors have given approval to the final version of the manuscript.

Supplementary material

11104_2019_4219_MOESM1_ESM.docx (362 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 362 kb)

References

  1. Andersson KO, Tighe MK, Guppy CN, Milham PJ, McLaren TI, Schefe CR, Lombi E (2016) XANES demonstrates the release of calcium phosphates from alkaline vertisols to moderately acidified solution. Environmental Science & Technology 50:4229–4237.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b04814 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Batjes NH (1997) A world dataset of derived soil properties by FAO–UNESCO soil unit for global modelling. Soil Use Manag 13:9–16.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-2743.1997.tb00550.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bray RH, Kurtz LT (1945) Determination of total, organic, and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Sci 59:39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bruun S, Harmer SL, Bekiaris G, Christel W, Zuin L, Hu Y, Jensen LS, Lombi E (2017) The effect of different pyrolysis temperatures on the speciation and availability in soil of P in biochar produced from the solid fraction of manure. Chemosphere 169:377–386.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.11.058 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cayuela ML, van Zwieten L, Singh BP, Jeffery S, Roig A, Sánchez-Monedero MA (2014) Biochar's role in mitigating soil nitrous oxide emissions: a review and meta-analysis. Agric Ecosyst Environ 191:5–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.10.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chan KY, Van Zwieten L, Meszaros I, Downie A, Joseph S (2008) Using poultry litter biochars as soil amendments. Soil Research 46:437–444.  https://doi.org/10.1071/SR08036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Christel W, Bruun S, Magid J, Jensen LS (2014) Phosphorus availability from the solid fraction of pig slurry is altered by composting or thermal treatment. Bioresour Technol 169:543–551.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.07.030 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Christel W, Bruun S, Magid J, Kwapinski W, Jensen LS (2016) Pig slurry acidification, separation technology and thermal conversion affect phosphorus availability in soil amended with the derived solid fractions, chars or ashes. Plant Soil 401:93–107.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-015-2519-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Colwell J (1963) The estimation of the phosphorus fertilizer requirements of wheat in southern New South Wales by soil analysis. Aust J Exp Agric 3:190–197.  https://doi.org/10.1071/EA9630190 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Doherty WOS, Greenwood J, Pilaski D, Wright PG (2002) The effect of liming conditions in juice clarification. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technology, Vol. 24Google Scholar
  11. Dai L, Tan F, Wu B, He M, Wang W, Tang X, Hu Q, Zhang M (2015) Immobilization of phosphorus in cow manure during hydrothermal carbonization. J Environ Manag 157:49–53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.04.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hedley M, McLaughlin M (2005) Reactions of phosphate fertilizers and by-products in soils. In: JT Sims, AN Sharpley (eds) phosphorus: agriculture and the environment. American Society of Agronomy, crop science Society of America, and soil science Society of America, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  13. Huang R, Tang Y (2015) Speciation dynamics of phosphorus during (hydro)thermal treatments of sewage sludge. Environmental Science & Technology 49:14466–14474.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b04140 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. IUSS Working Group WRB (2014) World Reference Base for soil resources 2014. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps (3rd ed.). FAO, Rome, ISBN 978-92-5-108370-3Google Scholar
  15. Kookana RS (2010) The role of biochar in modifying the environmental fate, bioavailability, and efficacy of pesticides in soils: a review. Soil Research 48:627–637.  https://doi.org/10.1071/SR10007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Manuel J (2014) Nutrient pollution: a persistent threat to waterways. Environ Health Perspect 122:A304–A309.  https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.122-A304 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Murphy J, Riley JP (1962) A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal Chim Acta 27:31–36.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(00)88444-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Friendly M, Kindt R, Legendre P, McGlin D, Minchin P, O’Hara RB, Simpson G, Solymos P, others (2017) vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 2.4–3. 2017 [accessed 2016 Jan 1]. R package version 2.4–3. 2017 ednGoogle Scholar
  19. Park JH, Choppala GK, Bolan NS, Chung JW, Chuasavathi T (2011) Biochar reduces the bioavailability and phytotoxicity of heavy metals. Plant Soil 348:439–451.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-011-0948-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Qian T-T, Jiang H (2014) Migration of phosphorus in sewage sludge during different thermal treatment processes. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 2:1411–1419.  https://doi.org/10.1021/sc400476j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Quin PR, Cowie AL, Flavel RJ, Keen BP, Macdonald LM, Morris SG, Singh BP, Young IM, Van Zwieten L (2014) Oil mallee biochar improves soil structural properties - a study with x-ray micro-CT. Agric Ecosyst Environ 191:142–149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2014.03.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. R Core Team (2013) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  23. Ravel B, Newville M (2005) ATHENA, ARTEMIS, HEPHAESTUS: data analysis for X-ray absorption spectroscopy using IFEFFIT. J Synchrotron Radiat 12:537–541.  https://doi.org/10.1107/S0909049505012719 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Richardson AE, Lynch JP, Ryan PR, Delhaize E, Smith FA, Smith SE, Harvey PR, Ryan MH, Veneklaas EJ, Lambers H, Oberson A, Culvenor RA, Simpson RJ (2011) Plant and microbial strategies to improve the phosphorus efficiency of agriculture. Plant Soil 349:121–156.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-011-0950-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Robinson JS, Baumann K, Hu Y, Hagemann P, Kebelmann L, Leinweber P (2018) Phosphorus transformations in plant-based and bio-waste materials induced by pyrolysis. Ambio 47:73–82.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-017-0990-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Rombolà AG, Marisi G, Torri C, Fabbri D, Buscaroli A, Ghidotti M, Hornung A (2015) Relationships between chemical characteristics and phytotoxicity of biochar from poultry litter pyrolysis. J Agric Food Chem 63:6660–6667.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b01540 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Rose T, Wissuwa M (2012) Rethinking internal phosphorus utilization efficiency: a new approach is needed to improve PUE in grain crops. In: Sparks DL (ed) Advances in agronomy. Academic Press, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  28. Rose TJ, Keen B, Morris SG, Quin P, Rust J, Kearney L, Kimber S, Van Zwieten L (2016) Application of woody biochar and woody mulch to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions from a poultry litter-amended soil in the subtropics. Agric Ecosyst Environ 228:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rose TJ, Rengel Z, Ma Q, Bowden JW (2007) Differential accumulation patterns of phosphorus and potassium by canola cultivars compared to wheat. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 170:404–411.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200625163 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Seiter JM, Staats-Borda KE, Ginder-Vogel M, Sparks DL (2008) XANES spectroscopic analysis of phosphorus speciation in alum-amended poultry litter. J Environ Qual 37:477–485.  https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2007.0285 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Silber A, Levkovitch I, Graber ER (2010) pH-dependent mineral release and surface properties of cornstraw biochar: agronomic implications. Environmental Science & Technology 44:9318–9323.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es101283d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Slavich PG, Sinclair K, Morris SG, Kimber SWL, Downie A, Van Zwieten L (2013) Contrasting effects of manure and green waste biochars on the properties of an acidic ferralsol and productivity of a subtropical pasture. Plant Soil 366:213–227.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-012-1412-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stevens A, Ramirez-Lopez L (2013) An introduction to the prospectr package. R package Vignette R package version 0.1.3Google Scholar
  34. Sweeten JM, Korenberg J, LePori WA, Annamalai K, Parnell CB (1986) Combustion of cattle feedlot manure for energy production. Energy in Agriculture 5:55–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Uchimiya M, Hiradate S, Antal MJ (2015) Dissolved phosphorus speciation of flash carbonization, slow pyrolysis, and fast pyrolysis biochars. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 3:1642–1649.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b00336 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Van Zwieten L, Kimber S, Morris S, Downie A, Berger E, Rust J, Scheer C (2010) Influence of biochars on flux of N2O and CO2 from ferrosol. Soil Research 48:555–568.  https://doi.org/10.1071/SR10004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Van Zwieten L, Kimber SWL, Morris SG, Singh BP, Grace PR, Scheer C, Rust J, Downie AE, Cowie AL (2013) Pyrolysing poultry litter reduces N2O and CO2 fluxes. Sci Total Environ 465:279–287.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.02.054 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Van Zwieten L, Rose T, Herridge D, Kimber S, Rust J, Cowie A, Morris S (2015) Enhanced biological N2 fixation and yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in an acid soil following biochar addition: dissection of causal mechanisms. Plant Soil 395:7–20.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-015-2427-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wang T, Camps-Arbestain M, Hedley M, Bishop P (2012) Predicting phosphorus bioavailability from high-ash biochars. Plant Soil 357:173–187.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-012-1131-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Warnes GR, Bolker B, Bonebakker L, Gentleman R, Huber W, Liaw A, Lumley T, Maechler M, Magnusson A, Moeller S, Schwartz M, Venables B (2019) gplots: Various R Programming Tools for Plotting Data. R package version 3.0.1.1. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=gplots. Accessed 27 Jan 2019
  41. Watt DA (2003) Aluminium-responsive genes in sugarcane: identification and analysis of expression under oxidative stress. J Exp Bot 54(385):1163–1174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Weng Z, Van Zwieten L, Singh BP, Tavakkoli E, Joseph S, Macdonald LM, Rose TJ, Rose MT, Kimber SWL, Morris S, Cozzolino D, Araujo JR, Archanjo BS, Cowie A (2017) Biochar built soil carbon over a decade by stabilizing rhizodeposits. Nat Clim Chang 7:371–376.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3276 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zwetsloot MJ, Lehmann J, Solomon D (2015) Recycling slaughterhouse waste into fertilizer: how do pyrolysis temperature and biomass additions affect phosphorus availability and chemistry? J Sci Food Agric 95:281–288.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6716 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Southern Cross Plant ScienceSouthern Cross UniversityLismoreAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Organics ResearchSouthern Cross UniversityLismoreAustralia
  3. 3.Schefe ConsultingRutherglenAustralia
  4. 4.NSW Department of Primary IndustriesWollongbarAustralia
  5. 5.Department of Animal, Plant and Soil Sciences, Centre for AgriBioscienceLa Trobe UniversityBundooraAustralia
  6. 6.School of Environment, Science and EngineeringSouthern Cross UniversityLismoreAustralia

Personalised recommendations