Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 443, Issue 1–2, pp 323–335 | Cite as

Spatial and temporal patterns of root dynamics in a Bornean tropical rainforest monitored using the root scanner method

  • Izuki EndoEmail author
  • Tomonori Kume
  • Lip Khoon Kho
  • Ayumi Katayama
  • Naoki Makita
  • Hidetoshi Ikeno
  • Jun’ichiro Ide
  • Mizue Ohashi
Regular Article
  • 237 Downloads

Abstract

Aims

Root phenology patterns in tropical regions are poorly understood because limited data are available. Using the root scanner method, the aims of this study were to clarify 1) the temporal phenology of root production and decomposition, 2) the spatial variability of the root phenology, and 3) the contribution of different root diameter classes to root production and decomposition.

Methods

Image acquisition was conducted monthly from April 2014 to May 2015 at five sites in a Bornean tropical rainforest. The projected area and length of root production and decomposition were derived manually from images using image-processing software and were grouped into 0.5-mm-diameter intervals.

Results

The spatial distribution of root production and decomposition differed among the sites. Monthly projected root length indicated that the number and timing of peak root production and decomposition differed with each site. A substantial proportion of root production and decomposition was dominated by very fine roots (<0.5 mm diameter).

Conclusions

The scanner method was useful to monitor the root phenology at the root system scale though the scanner images cover only a portion of the root systems of mature trees. Different patterns of root phenology among the sites might be associated with the high diversity and the indistinct seasonality of the Bornean tropical rainforest.

Keywords

Fine root Very fine root Root phenology Root production Root decomposition Aseasonal tropical rainforest 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the Forest Department, Sarawak, for their kind support of our research in Lambir Hills National Park. The authors greatly appreciate the effort taken by R. Yamauchi, University of Hyogo, for data acquisition. We would also like to thank Dr. T. Kimura, University of Hyogo, for assistance with image analysis. We thank Catherine Dandie, PhD, from Edanz Group (www.edanzediting.com/ac) for editing a draft of this manuscript. We would like to thank Dr. K. Matsumoto for the valuable comments on the manuscript. Data used in this paper are available from the corresponding author upon request. This study was financed in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan (Nos. 25304027, 16H02762). MO, TK, AK, NM designed the study, and IE wrote the initial draft of the manuscript. LKK contributed to acquisition of data. IE, MO, TK, NM, HI and JI contributed to analysis and interpretation of data, and assisted in the preparation of the manuscript. All other authors have contributed to data collection and interpretation, and critically reviewed the manuscript.

Supplementary material

11104_2019_4203_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 17 kb)
11104_2019_4203_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (527 kb)
Supporting Fig. 1 Spatial distribution of root production. (a–e) Images for two sides of Boxes 1–5, respectively. The left row are images for the lower side and the right row are images for the upper side of the acrylic box. Each image is the final image generated by compiling all layers of the root growth image data during the study period. Different colors indicate different months in which the scanner image was taken. The dotted-line square in (e) indicates the area magnified in the image in Fig. 3. (PDF 527 kb)
11104_2019_4203_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (321 kb)
Supporting Fig. 2 Spatial distribution of root decomposition. (a–e) Images for two sides of Boxes 1–5, respectively. The left row shows images for the lower side and the right row shows images for the upper side of the acrylic box. Each image is the final image generated by compiling all layers of the root decomposition image data during the study period. Different colors indicate different months in which the scanner image was taken. The dotted-line square in (e) indicates the area magnified in the image in Fig. 5. (PDF 321 kb)
11104_2019_4203_MOESM4_ESM.pptx (144 kb)
Supporting Fig. 3 Root length ratio (%) of root production (a–e) and root decomposition (f–j) in five boxes. (a–e) and (f–j) present data for Boxes 1 to 5, respectively. (PPTX 144 kb)

References

  1. Adams TS, McCormack ML, Eissenstat DM (2013) Foraging strategies in trees of different root morphology: the role of root lifespan. Tree Physiol 33:940–948.  https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpt067 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Addo-Danso SD, Prescott CE, Smith AR (2016) Methods for estimating root biomass and production in forest and woodland ecosystem carbon studies: a review. For Ecol Manag 359:332–351.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.08.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashton PS (2005) Chapter 17. Lambir’s Forest: the world’s most diverse known tree assemblage? In: Roubik DW, Sakai S, Karim AAH (eds) Pollination ecology and the rain forest Sarawak studies, ecological studies 174. Springer, New York, pp 191–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Böhm W (1979) Methods of studying root systems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Comas LH, Anderson LJ, Dunst RM, Lakso ANEDM (2005) Canopy and environmental control of root dynamics in a long-term study of Concord grape. New Phytol 167:829–840.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01456.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Dannoura M, Kominami Y, Oguma H, Kanazawa Y (2008) The development of an optical scanner method for observation of plant root dynamics. Plant Root 2:14–18.  https://doi.org/10.3117/plantroot.2.14 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Do TV, Sato T, Kozan O (2016) A new approach for estimating fine root production in forests: a combination of ingrowth core and scanner. Trees 30:545–554.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-015-1195-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eissenstat DM, Wells CE, Yanai RD, Whitebeck JL (2000) Building roots in a changing environment: implications for root longevity. New Phytol 147:33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Finér L, Ohashi M, Noguchi K, Hirano Y (2011) Fine root production and turnover in forest ecosystems in relation to stand and environmental characteristics. For Ecol Manag 262:2008–2023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gill RA, Jackson RB (2000) Global patterns of root turnover for terrestrial ecosystems. New Phytol 147:13–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gu J, Yu S, Sun Y, Wang Z, Guo D (2011) Influence of root structure on root survivorship: an analysis of 18 tree species using a minirhizotron method. Ecol Res 26:755–762.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-011-0833-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Guo D, Li H, Mitchell RJ, Han W, Hendricks JJ, Fahey TJ, Hendrick RL (2008) Fine root heterogeneity by branch order: exploring the discrepancy in root turnover estimates between minirhizotron and carbon isotopic methods. New Phytol 177:443–456.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02242.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hansson K, Helmisaari HS, Sah SP, Lange H (2013) Fine root production and turnover of tree and understory vegetation in scots pine, silver birch and Norway spruce stands in SW Sweden. For Ecol Manag 309:58–65.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.01.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hendrick RL, Pregitzer KS (1992) Spatial variation in tree root distribution and growth associated with minirhizotrons. Plant Soil 143:283–288.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00007884 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hendrick RL, Pregitzer KS (1993) Patterns of fine root mortality in two sugar maple forests. Nature 361:59–61.  https://doi.org/10.1038/361059a0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ishizuka S, Tanaka S, Sakurai K, Hirai H, Hirotani H, Ogino K, Lee HS, Kendawang JJ (1998) Characterization and distribution of soils at Lambir Hills National Park in Sarawak, Malaysia, with special reference to soil hardness and soil texture. Tropics 8:31–44.  https://doi.org/10.3759/tropics.8.31 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jackson RB, Mooney HA, Schulze E-D (1997) A global budget for fine root biomass, surface area, and nutrient contents. Proc Natl Acad Sci 94:7362–7366.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.94.14.7362 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Katayama A, Kume T, Komatsu H, Ohashi M, Nakagawa M, Yamashita M, Otsuki K, Suzuki M, Kumagai T (2009) Effect of forest structure on the spatial variation in soil respiration in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Agric For Meteorol 149:1666–1673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Katayama A, Kume T, Komatsu H, Saitoh TM, Ohashi M, Nakagawa M, Suzuki M, Otsuki K, Kumagai T (2013) Carbon allocation in a Bornean tropical rainforest without dry seasons. J Plant Res 126:505–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Keyes MR, Grier CC (1981) Above- and below-ground net production in 40-year-old Douglas-fir stands on low and high productivity sites. Can J For Res 11:599–605.  https://doi.org/10.1139/x81-082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kho LK, Malhi Y, Tan SKS (2013) Annual budget and seasonal variation of aboveground and belowground net primary productivity in a lowland dipterocarp forest in Borneo. J Geophys Res Biogeosci 118:1282–1296.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrg.20109 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kume T, Komatsu H, Kuraji K, Suzuki M (2008) Less than 20-min time lags between transpiration and stem sap flow in emergent trees in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Agric For Meteorol 148:1181–1189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kume T, Tanaka N, Kuraji K, Komatsu H, Yoshifuji N, Saitoh TM, Suzuki M, Kumagai T (2011) Ten-year evapotranspiration estimates in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Agric For Meteorol 151:1183–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kume T, Ohashi M, Makita N, Kho LK, Katayama A, Endo I, Matsumoto K, Ikeno H (2018) Image analysis procedure for the optical scanning of fine-root dynamics: errors depending on the observer and root-viewing window size. Tree Physiol 38(12):1927–1938.  https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpy124 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Majdi H, Ӧhrvik J (2004) Interactive effects of soil warming and fertilization on root production, mortality, and longevity in a Norway spruce stand in northern Sweden. Glob Chang Biol 10:182–188.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2003.00733.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Majdi H, Pregitzer K, Morén AS, Nylund JE, Ågren GI (2005) Measuring fine root turnover in forest ecosystems. Plant Soil 276:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-005-3104-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Makita N, Hirano Y, Dannoura M, Kominami Y, Mizoguchi T, Ishii H, Kanazawa Y (2009) Fine root morphological traits determine variation in root respiration of Quercus serrata. Tree Physiol 29:579–585.  https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpn050 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Makita N, Kosugi Y, Dannoura M, Takanashi S, Niiyama K, Kassim AR, Nik AR (2012) Patterns of root respiration rates and morphological traits in 13 tree species in a tropical forest. Tree Physiol 32:303–312.  https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tps008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Malhi Y, Doughty C, Galbraith D (2011) The allocation of ecosystem net primary productivity in tropical forests. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 366:3225–3245.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2011.0062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Malhi Y (2012) The productivity, metabolism and carbon cycle of tropical forest vegetation. J Ecol 100:65–75.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01916.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McCormack ML, Guo D (2014) Impacts of environmental factors on fine root lifespan. Front Plant Sci 5:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2014.00205 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McCormack ML, Adams TS, Smithwick EAH, Eissenstat DM (2014) Variability in root production, phenology, and turnover rate among 12 temperate tree species. Ecology 95:2224–2235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Metcalfe DB, Meir P, Aragão LEOC, da Costa ACL, Braga AP, Gonçalves PHL, de Athaydes Silva Junior J, de Almeida SS, Dawson LA, Malhi Y, Williams M (2008) The effects of water availability on root growth and morphology in an Amazon rainforest. Plant Soil 311:189–199.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-008-9670-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nadelhoffer KJ, Aber JD, Melillo JM (1985) Fine roots, net primary production and soil nitrogen availability : a new hypothesis. Ecology 66:1377–1390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Najar A, Landhäusser SM, Whitehill JGA, Bonello P, Erbilgin N (2014) Reserves accumulated in non-photosynthetic organs during the previous growing season drive plant defenses and growth in Aspen in the subsequent growing season. J Chem Ecol 40:21–30.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-013-0374-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Nakagawa M, Tanaka K, Nakashizuka T, Ohkubo T, Kato T, Maeda T, Sato K, Miguchi H, Nagamasu H, Ogino K, Teo S, Hamid AA, Seng LH (2000) Impact of severe drought associated with the 1997–1998 El Niño in a tropical forest in Sarawak. J Trop Ecol 16:355–367.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400001450 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nakagawa M, Ushio M, Kume T, Nakashizuka T (2019) Seasonal and long-term patterns in litterfall in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Ecol Res 34:31–39.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1440-1703.1003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nakahata R, Osawa A (2017) Fine root dynamics after soil disturbance evaluated with a root scanner method. Plant Soil 419:467–487.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-017-3361-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Noguchi K, Sakata T, Mizoguchi T, Takahashi M (2005) Estimating the production and mortality of fine roots in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantation using a minirhizotron technique. J For Res 10:435–441.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10310-005-0163-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ohashi M, Kume T, Yamane S, Suzuki M (2007) Hot spots of soil respiration in an Asian tropical rainforest. Geophys Res Lett 34:2–5.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL029587 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Osada N, Takeda H, Furukawa A, Awang M (2002) Ontogenetic changes in leaf phenology of a canopy species, Elateriospermum tapos (Ephorbiaceae), in a Malaysian rain forest. J Trop Ecol 18:91–105.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467402002055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ostonen I, Lõhmus K, Pajuste K (2005) Fine root biomass, production and its proportion of NPP in a fertile middle-aged Norway spruce forest: comparison of soil core and ingrowth core methods. For Ecol Manag 212:264–277.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.03.064 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Peñuelas J, Iolanda F, Xiaoyang Z, Laura L, Romà O, Francisco L, Comas P, Marc E, Jaume T (2004) Complex spatiotemporal phenological shifts as a response to rainfall changes. New Phytol 161:837–846.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2003.01003.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pregitzer KS, King JS, Burton AJ, Brown SE (2000) Responses of tree fine roots to temperature. New Phytol 147:105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Radville L, McCormack ML, Post E, Eissenstat DM (2016) Root phenology in a changing climate. J Exp Bot 67:3617–3628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Raich JW, Nadelhoffer KJ (1989) Belowground carbon allocation in forest ecosystems: global trends. Ecology 70:1346–1354.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1938194 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Reich PB, Walters MB, Ellsworth DS (1992) Leaf life-span in relation to leaf, plant, and stand characteristics among diverse ecosystems. Ecol Monogr 62:365–392.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2937116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rivera G, Elliott S, Caldas LS, Nicolossi G, Coradin VT, Borchert R (2002) Increasing day-length induces spring flushing of tropical dry forest trees in the absence of rain. Trees 16:445–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sakurai K (1999) Soils and agriculture in Borneo. Tropics 9:27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Steinaker DF, Wilson SD (2008) Phenology of fine roots and leaves in forest and grassland. J Ecol 96:1222–1229.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2008.01439.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Weemstra M, Mommer L, Visser EJW, van Ruijven J, Kuyper TW, Mohren GMJ, Sterck FJ (2016) Towards a multidimensional root trait framework: a tree root review. New Phytol 211:1159–1169.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.14003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Wielgolaski FE (1999) Starting dates and basic temperatures in phenological observations of plants. Int J Biometeorol 42:158–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Izuki Endo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tomonori Kume
    • 2
  • Lip Khoon Kho
    • 3
  • Ayumi Katayama
    • 2
  • Naoki Makita
    • 4
  • Hidetoshi Ikeno
    • 1
  • Jun’ichiro Ide
    • 5
  • Mizue Ohashi
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Human Science and EnvironmentUniversity of HyogoHimeji CityJapan
  2. 2.Kasuya Research ForestKyushu UniversityFukuoakaJapan
  3. 3.Biological Research DivisionMalaysian Palm Oil BoardKajangMalaysia
  4. 4.Faculty of ScienceShinshu UniversityNaganoJapan
  5. 5.Institute of Decision Science for a Sustainable SocietyKyushu UniversityFukuoakaJapan

Personalised recommendations