Plant and soil effects on denitrification potential in agricultural soils
- 148 Downloads
Background and aims
Microbial denitrification is the primary driver of nitrogen losses from the plant-soil system and the key process for the closure of the global N cycle. All major controls of denitrification might be directly or indirectly affected by plants. However, there is a lack of research of the direct effects of plants on soil denitrification and how this effect might be mediated by soil properties. This study assesses the effect of three common crop species and two agricultural soils on denitrification potentials.
We conducted a factorial experiment under controlled conditions to analyze the effects of (1) different plant species (barley, wheat or ryegrass), (2) two different soils (texture/ SOC) and (3) two different soil moisture levels on Denitrification Enzyme Activity (DEA) in bulk and rhizosphere soil.
The SOC richer clay loam soil showed on average higher DEA (+81%) compared to the SOC poorer silty loam soil. All three plants were found to stimulate denitrification with significant differences between certain species: rye grass (+92% ± 14%) ≥ barley (+75% ± 26%) ≥ wheat (+50% ± 19%).
DEA in agricultural soils is interactively controlled by plant species and soil type with an overall stimulating effect of plants on the denitrification potential. Future research should focus on disentangling single mechanisms of plant control on actual denitrification rates and N gas product ratios.
KeywordsDenitrification potential DEA Plant stimulation Soil texture
We gratefully acknowledge Daniel Maurer, Anja Schäfler-Schmid, Tatiana Rittl, Julia Pazmino Murillo, Robin Jahn and Madeleine Nicolas for help during laboratory work, preparation of the setup of the experiment, and/or suggestions on writing. Data of the soil properties were provided by DASIM (Denitrification in Agricultural Soils – Integrated control and Modelling) research unit. We thank the German Science Foundation for funding our work through the research unit DFG-FOR 2337: DASIM.
- Boyer EW, Alexander RB, Parton WJ, Li C, Butterbach-Bahl K, Donner SD, Skaggs RW, Grosso SJD (2006) Modeling denitrification in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at regional scales. Ecol Appl 16:2123–2142. https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2006)016[2123:MDITAA]2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
- Butterbach-Bahl K, Baggs EM, Dannenmann M et al (2013) Nitrous oxide emissions from soils : how well do we understand the processes and their controls ? Nitrous oxide emissions from soils : how well do we understand the processes and their controls ? Author for correspondence. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 368:20130122. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0165 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cantarel AAM, Pommier T, Desclos-Theveniau M, Diquélou S, Dumont M, Grassein F, Kastl EM, Grigulis K, Laîné P, Lavorel S, Lemauviel-Lavenant S, Personeni E, Schloter M, Poly F (2015) Using plant traits to explain plant–microbe relationships involved in nitrogen acquisition. Ecology 96:788–799. https://doi.org/10.1890/13-2107.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Davidson EA, Schimel JP (1995) Microbial processes of production and consumption of nitric oxide, nitrous oxide and methane. In: Matson PA, Harriss RD (eds) Biogenic trace gases: measuring emissions from soil and water. Springer, New York, pp 327–357Google Scholar
- Davidson EA, Seitzinger SP (2006) The enigma of progess in denitrification research. Ecol Appl 16:2057–2063. https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2006)016[2057:TEOPID]2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
- Domeignoz-Horta LA, Philippot L, Peyrard C, Bru D, Breuil MC, Bizouard F, Justes E, Mary B, Léonard J, Spor A (2018) Peaks of in situ N2O emissions are influenced by N2O-producing and reducing microbial communities across arable soils. Glob Chang Biol 24:360–370. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13853 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Firestone MK, Davidson EA (1989) Summary for policymakers. In: Intergovernmental panel on climate change (ed) Climate change 2013 - the physical science basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1–30Google Scholar
- Groffman PM, Holland EA, Myrold DD et al (1999) Denitrification. In: Robertson GP, Coleman DC, Bledsoe CS, Sollins P (eds) Standard soil methods for long-term ecological research. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 277–288Google Scholar
- Groffman PM, Altabet MA, Bohlke JK et al (2006) Methods for measuring denitrification: diverse approaches to a difficult problem. Ecol Appl 16:2091–2122. https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2006)016[2091:MFMDDA]2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
- Guo L, Lin H (2018) Addressing two bottlenecks to advance the understanding of preferential flow in soils. In: Advances in Agronomy, pp 61–117Google Scholar
- Henry S, Texier S, Hallet S, Bru D, Dambreville C, Chèneby D, Bizouard F, Germon JC, Philippot L (2008) Disentangling the rhizosphere effect on nitrate reducers and denitrifiers: insight into the role of root exudates. Environ Microbiol 10:3082–3092. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01599.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Holland EA, Robertson GP, Greenberg J et al (1999) Soil CO2, N2O and CH4 exchange. In: Robertson GP, Bledsoe CS, Coleman DC, Sollins P (eds) Standard soil methods for long-term ecological research. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 185–201Google Scholar
- Jäger HJ, Schmidt SW, Kammann C et al (2003) The University of Gießen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment study: description of the experimental site and of a new enrichment system. J Appl Bot Bot 77:117–127Google Scholar
- Philippot L, Hallin S, Schloter M (2007) Ecology of denitrifying prokaryotes in agricultural soil. In: Advances in agronomy, pp 249–305Google Scholar
- Phogat VK, Tomar VS, Dahiya R (2015) Soil physical properties. In: Rattan RK, Katyal JC, Dwivedi BS et al (eds) Soil science: an introduction. Indian Society of Soil Sciences, pp 135–171Google Scholar
- Rigby H, Clarke BO, Pritchard DL, Meehan B, Beshah F, Smith SR, Porter NA (2016) A critical review of nitrogen mineralization in biosolids-amended soil, the associated fertilizer value for crop production and potential for emissions to the environment. Sci Total Environ 541:1310–1338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Seitzinger S, Harrison J, Bohlke J et al (2006) Denitrification across landscaes and waterscapes: a synthesis. Ecol Appl 16:2064–2090. https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2006)016[2064:DALAWA]2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
- Smith MS, Tiedje JM (1979) The effect of roots on soil Denitrification1. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43:951. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1979.03615995004300050027x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stanford G, Epstein E (1974) Nitrogen mineralization-water relations in soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 38:103–107. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1974.03615995003800010032x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tiedje JM (1988) Ecology of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium. In: Environmental microbiology of anaerobes. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp 179–244Google Scholar
- World Programme for the Census of Agriculture (2010) Classification of crops. Appendix 3Google Scholar
- Zhang Y, Duan B, Xian JR, Korpelainen H, Li C (2011) Links between plant diversity, carbon stocks and environmental factors along a successional gradient in a subalpine coniferous forest in Southwest China. For Ecol Manag 262:361–369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.03.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar