FeSTAR2 interacted by FeSTAR1 alters its subcellular location and regulates Al tolerance in buckwheat

  • Jia Meng Xu
  • Zhan Qi Wang
  • Jian Feng Jin
  • Wei Wei Chen
  • Wei Fan
  • Shao Jian Zheng
  • Jian Li YangEmail author
Regular Article



Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) exhibits high Al tolerance, but only a few genes have been functionally characterized. We previously characterized a half-type ABC transporter, Fagopyrum esculentum sensitive to Al rhizotoxicity1 (FeSTAR1), in buckwheat Al tolerance. This study aims to investigate whether and how another half-type ABC transporter (FeSTAR2) plays role in Al tolerance in buckwheat.


The expression of FeSTAR2 and complementation test in Arabidopsis als3 mutant was examined. The interaction between FeSTAR1 and FeSTAR2 and subcellular location were analyzed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays.


Al rapidly and specifically induced FeSTAR2 expression. Having transmembrane domains, FeSTAR2 localizes to membrane. BiFC and Y2H assays showed that FeSTAR2 could interact with FeSTAR1 which contains only nucleotide binding domain. Intriguingly, interaction between FeSTAR1 and FeSTAR2 altered their locations. Both heterologous expression of FeSTAR2 in als3 and exogenous UDP-glucose rescued its Al hypersensitivity of als3 mutant, suggesting that involvement of FeSTAR2 in Al tolerance requires UDP-glucose. Furthermore, Al-induced inhibition of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity in both atstar1 and als3 mutants could be restored by UDP-glucose.


Our results indicate that FeSTAR2 interacts with FeSTAR1 to form an ABC transporter to regulate Al tolerance by vesicular transport of UDP-glucose which affects hemicellulose metabolism by regulating XET activity.


Aluminum toxicity Cell wall Protein interaction UDP-glucose Xyloglucan 



This work was supported financially by the Natural Science Foundation of China (31572193), 111 project (grant no. B14027), and The Chang Jiang Scholars Program (JLY). We are grateful to Prof. Dong Liu for providing us the Arabidopsis mutant als3 seeds.

Supplementary material

11104_2019_3943_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.4 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1400 kb)


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life SciencesZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Vector Biology and Pathogen Control of Zhejiang Province, College of Life SciencesHuzhou UniversityHuzhouChina
  3. 3.Research Centre for Plant RNA Signaling, Institute of Life Sciences, College of Life and Environmental SciencesHangzhou Normal UniversityHangzhouChina
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resources in Yunnan, The Key Laboratory of Medicinal Plant Biology of Yunnan Province, National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center on Germplasm Innovation & Utilization of Chinese Medicinal Materials in Southwest ChinaYunnan Agricultural UniversityKunmingChina

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