Factors influencing the release of the biological nitrification inhibitor 1,9-decanediol from rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots
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Root exudates of rice (Oryza sativa L.) can inhibit nitrification in Nitrosomonas bioassays, and 1,9-decanediol was recently identified as an important new biological nitrification inhibitor (BNI) from rice. However, the release characteristics of 1,9-decanediol have not been studied. The present study was designed to identify the major factors influencing the release of 1,9-decanediol from rice roots.
Rice plants were hydroponically grown in controlled environment chambers for 6 weeks, and root exudates were collected. Responses of exudate release to nitrogen form and concentration, pH, aeration, and bacterial inoculation were explored. The pH of root exudates, collected under different nitrogen-provision regimes, was determined, and 1,9-decanediol levels in exudates were monitored.
Ammonium (NH4+) and low pH in the root environment stimulated the release of 1,9-decanediol from rice roots. When only a part of the root system was exposed to NH4+, the secretion of 1,9-decanediol was triggered in the whole root system. Aeration of the root environment significantly enhanced 1,9-decanediol release. The presence of two major nitrifiers (Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosomonas stercoris) in the root medium stimulated release of 1,9-decanediol, whereas denitrifiers had no effect.
Our results demonstrate that the release of 1,9-decanediol is enhanced by low to moderate concentrations of NH4+ (≤1.0 mM), low pH, and aeration of the rhizosphere. Our study provides the first evidence of significant 1,9-decanediol secretion induced by nitrifying bacteria.
KeywordsBiological nitrification inhibition/inhibitor (BNI) 1,9-decanediol Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Ammonium Nitrifiers
This work was funded by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31761143015 and 31501836), the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) – ‘Soil–microbial system function and regulation’ of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB15030100), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20151053), the Leading Project of the Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ISSASIP1606), and grants from the University of Melbourne, Australia.
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