Optimized potassium nutrition improves plant-water-relations of barley under PEG-induced osmotic stress
- 133 Downloads
Water use efficiency (WUE) of crop plants is an important plant trait for maintaining high yield in water limited areas. By influencing osmoregulation of plants, potassium (K) plays a critical role in stress avoidance and adaptation. However, whole plant physiological mechanisms modulated by K supply in respect of plant drought tolerance and water use efficiency are not well understood. In the present study, growth, development and transpiration dynamics of two barley cultivars were evaluated with and without PEG-induced osmotic stress using an automated balance system and image based leaf area determination.
Experiments were conducted to study the effects of varied K supply under different osmotic stress treatments on a wide range of morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics of barley plants such as leaf area development, daily whole plant transpiration rate (DTR), stomatal conductance (gs), assimilation rate (AN), biomass and leaf water use efficiency (WUE) as well as foliar abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations. Two barley cultivars (cv. Sahin-91 and cv. Milford) were treated with two K supply levels (0.04 and 0.8 mM K) and osmotic stress induced by polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) for a period of 9 days (in total 48 days experiment) in the hydroponic plant culture (non-PEG and + 20% PEG ).
Without PEG, low-K supply depressed dry matter (DM) by almost 60% averaged across both cultivars. Under osmotic stress (+PEG), total leaf area was reduced by almost 70% in low-K compared to adequate-K plants. Low K concentration under PEG stress was correlated with higher ABA concentration and was correlated with lower leaf- and whole plant transpiration rate. Biomass-WUE under low K supply decreased significantly in both barley cultivars, to a greater extent in cv. Milford under osmotic stress. However, leaf-WUE was not affected by K supply in the absence of osmotic stress.
It was suggested that reduced biomass-WUE in low-K treated barley plants was not related to inefficient stomatal control under K deficiency, but instead due to reduced assimilation rate. It was further hypothesized that under low K supply, a number of energy consuming activities reduce biomass-WUE, which are not distinguished by measuring leaf-WUE. This study showed that low K supply under osmotic stress increases foliar ABA concentration thereby decreasing plant transpiration.
KeywordsABA concentration Potassium nutrition concentration Stomatal conductance Transpiration Water use efficiency
The research performed for this paper was financed by K+S KALI GmbH, Germany. We would also like to thank the staff of IAPN and the plant nutrition group of Göttingen University for their technical support.
- Andersen MN, Jensen CR, Lösch R (1992) The interaction effects of potassium and drought in field-grown barley. I. Yield, water-use efficiency and growth. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica B-Plant SoilSciences 42:34–44Google Scholar
- Battie-Laclau P, Delgado-Rojas JS, Christina M, Nouvellon Y, Bouillet J-P, Piccolo M d C, Moreira MZ, Gonçalves JL d M, Roupsard O, Laclau J-P (2016) Potassium fertilization increases water-use efficiency for stem biomass production without affecting intrinsic water-use efficiency in Eucalyptus grandis plantations. For Ecol Manag 364:77–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brag H (1972) The influence of potassium on the transpiration rate and stomatal opening in Triticum aestivum and Pisum sativum. Physiol Plant 26:250–257. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1972.tb03577.x Google Scholar
- Daszkowska-Golec A, Szarejko I (2013) Open or close the gate - stomata action under the control of phytohormones in drought stress conditions. Front Plant Sci 4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2013.00138
- Farquhar GD, Sharkey TD (1982) Stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 33:317–345. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.33.060182.001533 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Farquhar GD, Ehleringer JR, Hubick KT (1989) Carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 40:503–537. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.40.060189.002443 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Häffner E, Karlovsky P, Splivallo R, Traczewska A, Diederichsen E (2014) ERECTA, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and jasmonic acid modulate quantitative disease resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana to Verticillium longisporum. BMC Plant Biol 14:85. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-14-85 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hsiao TC, Lauchli A (1986) Role of potassium in plant-water relations. Advances in plant nutrition (USA)Google Scholar
- Jákli B, Tavakol E, Tränkner M, Senbayram M, Dittert K (2016a) Quantitative limitations to photosynthesis in K deficient sunflower and their implications on water-use efficiency. J Plant Physiol. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2016.11.010
- Jákli B, Tränkner M, Senbayram M, Dittert K (2016b) Adequate supply of potassium improves plant water-use efficiency but not leaf water-use efficiency of spring wheat. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci. n/a-n/a. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.201600340
- Kanai S, Moghaieb RE, El-Shemy HA, Panigrahi R, Mohapatra PK, Ito J, Nguyen NT, Saneoka H, Fujita K (2011) Potassium deficiency affects water status and photosynthetic rate of the vegetative sink in green house tomato prior to its effects on source activity. Plant Sci 180(2):368–374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2010.10.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Law BE, Falge E, Gu L, Baldocchi DD, Bakwin P, Berbigier P, Davis K, Dolman AJ, Falk M, Fuentes JD, Goldstein A, Granier A, Grelle A, Hollinger D, Janssens IA, Jarvis P, Jensen NO, Katul G, Mahli Y, Matteucci G, Meyers T, Monson R, Munger W, Oechel W, Olson R, Pilegaard K, Paw U KT, Thorgeirsson H, Valentini R, Verma S, Vesala T, Wilson K, Wofsy S (2002) Environmental controls over carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange of terrestrial vegetation. Agric For Meteorol, FLUXNET 2000 Synthesis 113:97–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00104-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Marschner H (2012) Marschner’s mineral nutrition of higher plants, 3rd edn. Elsevier, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Martineau E, Domec JC, Bosc A, Denoroy P, Fandino VA, Lavres Jr J, Jordan-Meille L (2017) The effects of potassium nutrition on water use in field-grown maize (Zea mays L.). Environ Exp Bot 134:62–71Google Scholar
- Martin-Vertedor AI, Dodd IC (2011) Root-to-shoot signalling when soil moisture is heterogeneous: increasing the proportion of root biomass in drying soil inhibits leaf growth and increases leaf abscisic acid concentration. Plant Cell Environ 34:1164–1175. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02315.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Medrano H, Tomás M, Martorell S, Flexas J, Hernández E, Rosselló J, ... & Bota J (2015) From leaf to whole-plant water use efficiency (WUE) in complex canopies: limitations of leaf WUE as a selection target. The Crop Journal 3(3):220–228Google Scholar
- Rasband WS (1997) ImageJ. US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MDGoogle Scholar
- R Core Team 2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
- Senbayram M, Tränkner M, Dittert K, Brück H (2015) Daytime leaf water use efficiency does not explain the relationship between plant N status and biomass water-use efficiency of tobacco under non-limiting water supply. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 178:682–692. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.201400608 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tränkner M, Jákli B, Tavakol E, Geilfus C-M, Cakmak I, Dittert K, Senbayram M (2016) Magnesium deficiency decreases biomass water-use efficiency and increases leaf water-use efficiency and oxidative stress in barley plants. Plant Soil 406:409–423. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-016-2886-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vishwakarma K, Upadhyay N, Kumar N, Yadav G, Singh J, Mishra RK, Kumar V, Verma R, Upadhyay RG, Pandey M, Sharma S (2017) Abscisic acid signaling and abiotic stress tolerance in plants: a review on current knowledge and future prospects. Front Plant Sci 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00161
- Yamburenko MV, Zubo YO, Börner T (2015) Abscisic acid affects transcription of chloroplast genes via protein phosphatase 2C-dependent activation of nuclear genes: repression by guanosine-3′-5′-bisdiphosphate and activation by sigma factor 5. Plant J 82:1030–1041. https://doi.org/10.1111/tpj.12876 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang J, Jia W, Yang J, Ismail AM (2006) Role of ABA in integrating plant responses to drought and salt stresses. Field Crop Res, Preparing Rice for a Water-Limited Future: from Molecular to Regional Scale. International Rice Research Congress 97:111–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2005.08.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar