Plant and Soil

, Volume 428, Issue 1–2, pp 241–251 | Cite as

Zeta potential of roots determined by the streaming potential method in relation to their Mn(II) sorption in 17 crops

  • Hai-long Lu
  • Zhao-dong Liu
  • Qin Zhou
  • Ren-kou XuEmail author
Regular Article



To compare the zeta potentials of roots of 17 crops measured with streaming potential method and to test feasibility of this method for different plants.


In addition to zeta potentials, surface charge and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of plant roots were measured independently. Mn(II) chemical forms sorbed on the roots were separated using sequential extraction.


There was a significant positive correlation between the zeta potential, CEC and negative charge of plant roots, indicating that the zeta potentials of plant roots as measured by streaming potential method were reliable. The roots of legumes carried greater negative charge than did non-legumes, which was responsible for more exchangeable and complexed Mn(II) sorbed on legume roots. In the infrared spectroscopy, the intensity of absorption peaks of legume roots was higher than that of non-legume roots. This indicated a higher concentration of functional groups on the roots of legumes than those of non-legumes, which was the main reason for the greater CEC and more negative zeta potential of legume roots and their higher sorption of Mn(II) when compared with non-legume crops.


Surface charge properties of plant roots determined their sorption capacity for Mn(II) and chemical forms of Mn(II) on the roots.


Legume crops Non-legume crops Roots Zeta potential Mn(II) sorption Streaming potential 



This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant number: 41230855) and the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant number: 2014CB441003).


  1. Allan DL, Jarrell WM (1989) Proton and copper adsorption to maize and soybean root cell walls. Plant Physiol 89:823–832CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Asher C, Ozanne P (1961) The cation exchange capacity of plant roots, and its relationship to the uptake of insoluble nutrients. Crop Pasture Sci 12:755–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blamey FPC, Hernandez-Soriano MC, Cheng M, Tang C, Paterson DJ, Lombi E, Wang WH, Scheckel KG, Kopittke PM (2015) Synchrotron-based techniques shed light on mechanisms of plant sensitivity and tolerance to high manganese in the root environment. Plant Physiol 169:2006–2020PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Blamey FPC, McKenna BA, Li C, Cheng MM, Tang CX, Jiang HB, Howard DL, Paterson DJ, Kappen P, Wang P, Menzies NW, Kopittke PM (2018) Manganese distribution and speciation help to explain the effects of silicate and phosphate on manganese toxicity in four crop species. New Phytol 217:1146–1160CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Broughton WJ, Hernandez G, Blair M, Beebe S, Gepts P, Vanderleyden J (2003) Beans (Phaseolus spp.)–model food legumes. Plant Soil 252:55–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bukšek H, Luxbacher T, Petrinić I (2010) Zeta potential determination of polymeric materials using two differently designed measuring cells of an electrokinetic analyzer. Acta Chim Slov 57:700–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cai X, Chen T, Zhou Q, Xu L, Qu L, Hua X, Lin J (2011) Development of Casparian strip in rice cultivars. Plant Signal Behav 6:59–65CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Chamuah GS, Dey SK (1982) Determination of cation exchange capacity of woody plant roots using ammonium acetate extractant. Plant Soil 68:135–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Childress AE, Elimelech M (1996) Effect of solution chemistry on the surface charge of polymeric reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes. J Membr Sci 119:253–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crooke WM (1964) The measurement of the cation-exchange capacity of plant roots. Plant Soil 21:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crossgrove J, Zheng W (2004) Manganese toxicity upon overexposure. NMR Biomed 17:544–553CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. El-Jaoual T, Cox DA (1998) Manganese toxicity in plants. J Plant Nutr 21:353–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hunter RJ (1981) Zeta potential in colloid science: principles and applications. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Javis SC, Robson AD (1983) A comparison of the cation/anion balance of ten cultivars of Trifolium subterraneum L. and their effects on soil acidity. Plant Soil 75:235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kalis EJJ, Temminghoff EJM, Weng L, van Riemsdijk WH (2006) Effect of humic acid and competing cations on metal uptake by Lolium perenne. Environ Toxicol Chem 25:702–711CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kalis EJJ, Temminghoff EJM, Visser A, van Riemsdijk WH (2007) Metal uptake by Lolium perenne in contaminated soils using a four-step approach. Environ Toxicol Chem 26:335–345CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kinraide TB (2001) Ion fluxes considered in terms of membrane-surface electrical potentials. Funct Plant Biol 28:607–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kinraide TB (2006) Plasma membrane surface potential (ψpm) as a determinant of ion bioavailability: a critical analysis of new and published toxicological studies and a simplified method for the computation of plant ψpm. Environ Toxicol Chem 25:3188–3198CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kinraide TB, Ryan PR, Kochian LV (1992) Interactive effects of Al3+, H+, and other cations on root elongation considered in terms of cell-surface electrical potential. Plant Physiol 99:1461–1468CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Kinraide TB, Yermiyahu U, Rytwo G (1998) Computation of surface electrical potentials of plant cell membranes correspondence to published zeta potentials from diverse plant sources. Plant Physiol 118:505–512CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Kopittke PM, Blamey FPC, Peng W, Menzies NW (2011) Calculated activity of Mn2+ at the outer surface of the root cell plasma membrane governs Mn nutrition of cowpea seedlings. J Exp Bot 62:3993–4001CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Kopittke PM, Lombi E, McKenna BA, Wang P, Donner E, Webb RI, Blamey FPC, Jonge MDD, Paterson D, Howard DL, Menzies NW (2013) Distribution and speciation of Mn in hydrated roots of cowpea at levels inhibiting root growth. Physiol Plant 147:453–464CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kopittke PM, Wang P, Menzies NW (2014) A web-accessible computer program for calculating electrical potentials and ion activities at cell-membrane surfaces. Plant Soil 375:35–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li SX, Wang ZH, Stewart BA (2011) Differences of some leguminous and nonleguminous crops in utilization of soil phosphorus and responses to phosphate fertilizers. Adv Agron 110:125–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li ZY, Liu Y, Zheng YY, Xu RK (2015) Zeta potential at the root surfaces of rice characterized by streaming potential measurements. Plant Soil 386:237–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu Y, Xu RK (2015) The forms and distribution of aluminum adsorbed onto maize and soybean roots. J Soils Sediments 15:491–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu ZD, Wang HC, Li JY, Hong ZN, Xu RK (2015) Adhesion of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to amorphous Fe and Al hydroxides and their effects on the surface charges of the hydroxides. J Soils Sediments 15:2293–2303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liu ZD, Wang HC, Xu RK (2016) The effects of root surface charge and nitrogen forms on the adsorption of aluminum ions by the roots of rice with different aluminum tolerances. Plant Soil 408:43–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liu Y, Li ZY, Xu RK (2017a) The distribution of Mn(II) chemical forms on soybean roots as related to Mn(II) toxicity. Pedosphere.
  30. Liu ZD, Zhou Q, Hong ZN, Xu RK (2017b) Effects of surface charge and functional groups on the adsorption and binding forms of Cu and Cd on roots of indica and japonica rice cultivars. Front Plant Sci 8:1489Google Scholar
  31. Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. 2nd Edn. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  32. Meychik NR, Yermakov IP (2001) Ion exchange properties of plant root cell walls. Plant Soil 234:181–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Meychik NR, Nikolaeva JI, Yermakov IP (2005) Ion exchange properties of the root cell walls isolated from the palophyte plants (Suaeda altissima L.) grown under conditions of different salinity. Plant Soil 277:163–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Møller IM, Lundborg T, Bérczi A (1984) The negative surface charge density of plasmalemma vesicles from wheat and oat roots. FEBS Lett 167:181–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nobel AD, Zenneck I, Randall PJ (1996) Leaf litter ash alkalinity and neutralization of soil acidity. Plant Sci 179:293–302Google Scholar
  36. O'Shea P, Walters J, Ridge I, Wainright M, Trinci APJ (1990) Zeta potential measurements of cell wall preparations from Regnellidium diphyllum and Nymphoides peltata. Plant Cell Environ 13:447–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rengel Z, Robinson DL (1989) Determination of cation exchange capacity of ryegrass roots by summing exchangeable cations. Plant Soil 116:217–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Santosdíaz MS, Barróncruz MC (2011) Lead, chromium and manganese removal by in vitro root cultures of two aquatic macrophytes species: Typha latifolia L. and Scirpus americanus pers. Int J Phytoremediation 13:538–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sas L, Rengel Z, Tang C (2001) Excess cation uptake, and extrusion of protons and organic acid anions by Lupinus albus under phosphorus deficiency. Plant Sci 160:1191–1198CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Sharifi M, Khoshgoftarmanesh AH, Hadadzadeh H (2016) Changes in the chemical properties and swelling coefficient of alfalfa root cell walls in the presence of toluene as a toxic agent. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:7022–7031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shen J, Tang C, Rengel Z, Zhang F (2004) Root-induced acidification and excess cation uptake by N2-fixing Lupines albus grown in phosphorus-deficient soil. Plant Soil 260:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shomer I, Novacky AJ, Pike SM, Yermiyahu U, Kinraide TB (2003) Electrical potentials of plant cell walls in response to the ionic environment. Plant Physiol 133:411–422CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Singh J, Lee BK (2016) Influence of nano-TiO2 particles on the bioaccumulation of cd in soybean plants (Glycine max): a possible mechanism for the removal of Cd from the contaminated soil. J Environ Manag 170:88–96Google Scholar
  44. Sposito G (1989) The chemistry of soils. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Tang C, Yu Q (1999) Impact of chemical composition of legume residues and initial soil pH on pH change of a soil after residue incorporation. Plant Soil 215:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wacquant JP (1977) Physicochemical selectivity for cations and CEC of grass roots. Plant Soil 47:257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang J, Evangelou BP, Nielsen MT (1992) Surface chemical properties of purified root cell walls from two tobacco genotypes exhibiting different tolerance to manganese toxicity. Plant Physiol 100:496–501CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Wang N, Li JY, Xu RK (2009) Use of agricultural by-products to study the pH effects in an acid tea garden soil. Soil Use Manag 25:128–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wang YM, Kinraide TB, Wang P, Zhou DM, Hao XZ (2013) Modeling rhizotoxicity and uptake of Zn and co singly and in binary mixture in wheat in terms of the cell membrane surface electrical potential. Environ Sci Technol 47:2831–2838CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Wang W, Zhao XQ, Chen RF, Dong XY, Lan P, Ma JF, Shen RF (2015) Altered cell wall properties are responsible for ammonium-reduced aluminium accumulation in rice roots. Plant Cell Environ 38:1382–1390CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. White PJ, Broadley MR (2003) Calcium in plants. Ann Bot 92:487–511CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Wu Y, Hendershot WH (2009) Cation exchange capacity and proton binding properties of pea (Pisum sativum L.) roots. Water Air Soil Pollut 200:353–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Xu RK, Coventry DR (2003) Soil pH changes associated with lupin and wheat plant materials incorporated in a red-brown earth soil. Plant Soil 250:113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Xu RK, Zhao AZ (2013) Effect of biochars on adsorption of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) by three variable charge soils from southern China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:8491–8501Google Scholar
  55. Yan F, Schubert S (2000) Soil pH changes after application of plant shoot materials of faba bean and wheat. Plant Soil 220:279–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zanini E, Santoni S, Bonifacio E (2001) Indophenol blue colorimetric method for measuring cation exchange capacity in sandy soils. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 32:2519–2530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zheng SJ, Lin X, Yang J, Liu Q, Tang C (2004) The kinetics of aluminum adsorption and desorption by root cell walls of an aluminum resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar. Plant Soil 261:85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhou Q, Liu ZD, Liu Y, Jiang J, Xu RK (2016) Relative abundance of chemical forms of Cu(II) and Cd(II) on soybean roots as influenced by pH, cations and organic acids. Sci Rep 6:36373Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hai-long Lu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhao-dong Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qin Zhou
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ren-kou Xu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesNanjingChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations