Plant and Soil

, Volume 419, Issue 1–2, pp 557–573 | Cite as

Arabidopsis thaliana root and root exudate metabolism is altered by the growth-promoting bacterium Kosakonia radicincitans DSM 16656T

  • Katja Witzel
  • Nadine Strehmel
  • Susanne Baldermann
  • Susanne Neugart
  • Yvonne Becker
  • Matthias Becker
  • Beatrice Berger
  • Dierk Scheel
  • Rita Grosch
  • Monika Schreiner
  • Silke Ruppel
REGULAR ARTICLE

Abstract

Aims

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) affect host physiological processes in various ways. This study aims at elucidating the dependence of bacterial-induced growth promotion on the plant genotype and characterizing plant metabolic adaptations to PGPB.

Methods

Eighteen Arabidopsis thaliana accessions were inoculated with the PGPB strain Kosakonia radicincitans DSM 16656T. Colonisation pattern was assessed by enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-tagged K. radicincitans in three A. thaliana accessions differing in their growth response. Metabolic impact of bacterial colonisation was determined for the best responding accession by profiling distinct classes of plant secondary metabolites and root exudates.

Results

Inoculation of 18 A. thaliana accessions resulted in a wide range of growth responses, from repression to enhancement. Testing the bacterial colonisation of three accessions did not reveal a differential pattern. Profiling of plant secondary metabolites showed a differential accumulation of glucosinolates, phenylpropanoids and carotenoids in roots. Analysis of root exudates demonstrated that primary and secondary metabolites were predominantly differentially depleted by bacterial inoculation.

Conclusions

The plant genotype controls the bacterial growth promoting traits. Levels of lutein and β-carotene were elevated in inoculated roots. Supplementing a bacterial suspension with β-carotene increased bacterial growth, while this was not the case when lutein was applied, indicating that β-carotene could be a positive regulator of plant growth promotion.

Keywords

Arabidopsis Carotenoids Glucosinolates Plant growth promoting bacteria Phenylpropanoids Root exudates 

Abbreviations

AMF

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

CLSM

Confocal laser scanning microscopy

eGFP

Enhanced green fluorescent proteinPGBP plant growth promoting bacteria

GC-EI-Q-MS

Gas chromatography-electron ionization-quadrupole mass spectrometry

HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn

High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-multiple stage mass spectrometry

IAA

Indole-3-acetic acid

UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS

Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry

Notes

Acknowledgements

The technical assistance of Sabine Breitkopf, Andrea Jankowsky, Sylvia Krüger, Annett Platalla, Birgit Wernitz and Sieglinde Widiger is gratefully acknowledged. We thank Christoph Böttcher (Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Germany) for the gift of leucylproline standard, Ellen Lagendjik (Leiden University, Netherlands) for provision of eGFP plasmid pMP4655, and Stefanie Döll (Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Germany), Barbara Halkier and Deyang Xu (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) for transgenic Arabidopsis lines. This work was supported by the German Leibniz association (PAKT project ‘Chemical Communication in the Rhizosphere’, SAW-2011-IPB-3).

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katja Witzel
    • 1
  • Nadine Strehmel
    • 2
    • 3
  • Susanne Baldermann
    • 1
    • 4
  • Susanne Neugart
    • 1
  • Yvonne Becker
    • 1
  • Matthias Becker
    • 1
  • Beatrice Berger
    • 1
  • Dierk Scheel
    • 2
  • Rita Grosch
    • 1
  • Monika Schreiner
    • 1
  • Silke Ruppel
    • 1
  1. 1.Leibniz Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental CropsGroßbeerenGermany
  2. 2.Leibniz Institute of Plant BiochemistryHalleGermany
  3. 3.Federal Institute of Forensic and Social MedicineBerlinGermany
  4. 4.Institute of Nutritional ScienceUniversity of PotsdamNuthetalGermany

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