Evaluation of phosphorus in thermally converted sewage sludge: P pools and availability to wheat
Dried sewage sludge (SS) and the by-products of four SS thermal conversion processes (pyrolysis, incineration and two types of gasification) were investigated for phosphorus (P) availability.
A sequential extraction was used to determine the distribution of P among different P pools. After mixing materials with soil, availability of the P was determined with soil P extractions and in a growth experiment with wheat.
Thermally converted SS contained a greater proportion of P within recalcitrant pools than dried SS. Despite having very different P pool distributions, the incinerated and dried SS provided similar amounts of P to plants. Plant P supply from dried and incinerated SS was lower than the comparable soluble P treatment (50 mg P kg−1), but higher than a soluble treatment at a lower rate (20 mg P kg−1). Plant P uptake in gasified and pyrolysed treatments was only marginally greater than uptake in a control (no P) treatment. Plant P uptake correlated most closely with diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) P analysis of soil-material mixes. Phosphorus availability in the dried and incinerated SS treatments increased over time.
We propose that the dried and incinerated SS have potential as slow release P fertilisers in low pH soils.
KeywordsBiochar Bioash Sequential phosphorus extraction Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) Wheat Sewage sludge
- Bruun S, Harmer S L, Bekiaris G, Christel W, Zuin L, Hu Y, Jensen L S, Lombi E (2017) The effect of different pyrolysis temperatures on the speciation and availability in soil of P in biochar produced from the solid fraction of manure. Chemosphere 169:377–386. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.11.058 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- DeLuca T H, Gundale M J, MacKenzie M D, Jones D L (2015) Biochar effects on soil nutrient transformations. In: Lehmann J, Joseph S (eds) Biochar for environmental management: science, technology and implementation, 2nd edn. Taylor and Francis, New York, pp 421–454Google Scholar
- Hedley M J, Stewart J W B, Chauhan B S (1982a) Changes in inorganic and organic soil phosphorus fractions induced by cultivation practices and by laboratory incubations. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46(5):970. doi:10.2136/sssaj1982.03615995004600050017x
- Hedley M J, White R E, Nye P H (1982b) Plant-induced changes in the rhizosphere of rape (Brassica napus var. Emerald) seedlings. New Phytologist 91(1):45–56. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1982.tb03291.x
- Ippolito J A, Spokas K A, Novak J M, Lentz R D, Cantrell K B (2015) Biochar elemental composition and factors influencing nutrient retention. In: Lehmann J, Joseph S (eds) Biochar for environmental management: science, technology and implementation, 2nd edn. Taylor and Francis, New York, USA, pp 139–163Google Scholar
- Müller-Stöver D S, Ahrenfeldt J, Holm J K, Shalatet S G S, Henriksen U B, Hauggaard-Nielsen H (2012) Soil application of ash produced by low-temperature fluidized bed gasification: effects on soil nutrient dynamics and crop response. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 94(2–3):193–207. doi:10.1007/s10705-012-9533-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Richardson A E, Lynch J P, Ryan P R, Delhaize E, Smith F A, Smith S E, Harvey P R, Ryan M H, Veneklaas E J, Lambers H, Oberson A, Culvenor R A, Simpson R J (2011) Plant and microbial strategies to improve the phosphorus efficiency of agriculture. Plant Soil 349 (1–2):121–156. doi:10.1007/s11104-011-0950-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Singh B, Macdonald L M, Kookana R S, van Zwieten L, Butler G, Joseph S, Weatherley A, Kaudal B B, Regan A, Cattle J, Dijkstra F, Boersma M, Kimber S, Keith A, Esfandbod M (2014) Opportunities and constraints for biochar technology in Australian agriculture: looking beyond carbon sequestration. Soil Res 52(8):739–750Google Scholar
- Thomsen TP, Sarossy Z, Ahrenfeldt J, Henriksen UB, Frandsen FJ, Müller-Stover DS (2017a) Changes imposed by pyrolysis, thermal gasification and incineration on composition and phosphorus fertilizer quality of municipal sewage sludge. J Environ Manage 198:308–318Google Scholar
- Thomsen TP, Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Gøbel B, Stoholm P, Ahrenfeldt J, Henriksen UB, Müller-Stöver DS (2017b) Low temperature circulating fluidized bed gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge. Part 2: Evaluation of ash materials as phosphorus fertilizer Waste Management. In press. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2017.04.043
- Viader RP, Jensen PE, Ottosen LM, Thomsen TP, Ahrenfeldt J, Hauggaard-Nielsen H (2016) Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incineration and gasification sewage sludge ash. In: 2nd IWA conference on holistic sludge management (HSM2016)Google Scholar
- Wilfert P, Kumar P S, Korving L, Witkamp G J, van Loosdrecht M C M (2015) The relevance of phosphorus and iron chemistry to the recovery of phosphorus from wastewater: a review. Environ Sci Technol 49(16):9400–9414. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b00150
- Zheng H, Wang Z, Deng X, Zhao J, Luo Y, Novak J, Herbert S, Xing B (2013) Characteristics and nutrient values of biochars produced from giant reed at different temperatures. Bioresour Technol 130:463–471. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2012.12.044