Plant and Soil

, Volume 410, Issue 1–2, pp 41–50 | Cite as

Elevated carbon dioxide exacerbates adverse effects of Mg deficiency in durum wheat

Regular Article

Abstract

Background and Aims

Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and magnesium (Mg) deficiency have contrasting influences on plant growth and performance, but disrupt carbohydrate metabolism in a similar manner. This study was aimed at characterizing interactive effects of elevated CO2 and Mg nutrition on carbohydrate metabolism, sink strength and biomass partitioning.

Methods

Durum wheat was cultured in climate chambers with ambient (398 μmol mol−1 air) or elevated CO2 (700 μmol mol−1 air) and with adequate (1000 μM) or low (75 μM) Mg supply in nutrient solution. Biomass production and partitioning, tissue Mg concentrations, photosynthetic performance and carbohydrate status of leaves and roots were determined.

Results

Low-Mg plants responded to elevated CO2 with a biomass decrease rather than enhancement especially in roots. In low-Mg plants inhibition of root growth and partitioning of biomass towards shoots were enhanced by elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 increased photosynthesis rate in adequate-Mg plants, but not in low-Mg plants. Leaf carbohydrate concentration was increased 2 fold by low Mg at ambient CO2 and 3 fold at elevated CO2, suggesting that low Mg and elevated CO2 decreased carbohydrate transport from source tissues.

Conclusions

Elevated CO2 exacerbated adverse effects of inadequate Mg nutrition on plant growth, biomass partitioning, carbohydrate metabolism and photosynthetic performance in durum wheat. Adequate Mg nutrition was important for maintaining efficient transport of carbohydrates and thus prevent an early acclimation to elevated CO2.

Keywords

Elevated carbon dioxide Magnesium Wheat 

Supplementary material

11104_2016_2979_MOESM1_ESM.docx (31 kb)
ESM 1(DOCX 31 kb)

References

  1. Ainsworth EA, Long SP (2005) What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy properties and plant production to rising CO2. New Phytol 165:351–371CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amthor JS (2001) Effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration on wheat yield: review of results from experiments using various approaches to control CO2 concentration. Field Crop Res 73:1–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bloom AJ, Smart DR, Nguyen DT, Searles PS (2002) Nitrogen assimilation and growth of wheat under elevated carbon dioxide. P Natl Acad Sci USA 99:1730–1735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bloom AJ, Burger M, Rubio-Asensio JS, Cousins AB (2010) Carbon dioxide enrichment inhibits nitrate assimilation in wheat and arabidopsis. Science 328:899–903CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Boxler-Baldoma C, Lutz C, Heumann HG, Siefermann-Harms D (2006) Structural changes in the vascular bundles of light-exposed and shaded spruce needles suffering from Mg deficiency and ozone pollution. J Plant Physiol 163:195–205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bush DR (1989) Proton-coupled sucrose transport in plasmalemma vesicles isolated from sugar beet (Betavulgaris L. cv. Great Western) leaves. Plant Physiol 89:1318–1323CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Butterly CR, Armstrong R, Chen D, Tang C (2015) Carbon and nitrogen partitioning of wheat and field pea grown with two nitrogen levels under elevated CO2. Plant Soil 391:367–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cakmak I, Kirkby EA. (2008) Role of magnesium in carbon partitioning and alleviating photooxidative damage. Physiol Plant 133:692–704Google Scholar
  9. Cakmak I, Hengeler C, Marschner H (1994a) Partitioning of shoot and root dry matter and carbohydrates in bean plants suffering from phosphorus, potassium and magnesium deficiency. J Exp Bot 45:1245–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cakmak I, Hengeler C, Marschner H (1994b) Changes in phloem export of sucrose in leaves in response to phosphorus, potassium and magnesium deficiency in bean plants. J Exp Bot 45:1251–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. de Baaij JHF, Hoenderop JGJ, Bindels RJM (2015) Magnesium in man: implications for health and disease. Physiol Rev 95:1–46CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Drake BG, Gonzalez Meler MA, Long SP (1997) More efficient plants: A consequence of rising atmospheric CO2? Annu Rev Plant Physiol 48:609–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fischer ES, Bremer E (1993) Influence of magnesium-deficiency on rates of leaf expansion, starch and sucrose accumulation, and net assimilation in Phaseolusvulgaris. Physiol Plant 89:271–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fischer ES, Lohaus G, Heineke D, Heldt HW (1998) Magnesium deficiency results in accumulation of carbohydrates and amino acids in source and sink leaves of spinach. Physiol Plant 102:16–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Getz HP, Klein M (1995) The vacuolar ATPase of red beet storage tissue-electron-microscopic demonstration of the head-and-stalk structure. Bot Acta 108:14–23Google Scholar
  16. Hannick AF, Waterkeyn L, Weissen F, van Prag HJ (1993) Vascular tissue anatomy of Norway spruce needles and twigs in relation to magnesium deficiency. Tree Physiol 13:337–349CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hawkesford M, Horst W, Kichey T, Lambers H, Schjoerring J, Skrumsager Møller I, White P (2012) Functions of Macronutrients. In: Marschner’s Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, Third Edition, pp. 135–189. Marschner P, ed. Academic Press, London. ISBN 978–0–12–384905–2Google Scholar
  18. Hermans C, Verbruggen N (2005) Physiological characterization of Mg deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Exp Bot 56:2153–2161CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hermans C, Bourgis F, Faucher M, Strasser RJ, Delrot S, Verbruggen N (2005) Magnesium deficiency in sugar beets alters sugar partitioning and phloem loading in young mature leaves. Planta 220:541–549CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hermans C, Hammond JP, White PJ, Verbruggen N (2006) How do plants respond to nutrient shortage by biomass allocation? Trends Plant Sci 12:610–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hocking P, Meyer C (1991) Effects of CO2 enrichment and nitrogen stress on growth, and partitioning of dry matter and nitrogen in wheat and maize. Aust J Plant Physiol 18:339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Houshmandfar A, Fitzgerald GJ, Tausz M (2015) Elevated CO2 decreases both transpiration flow and concentrations of Ca and Mg in the xylem sap of wheat. J Plant Physiol 174:157–160CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Jin J, Tang C, Armstrong R, Sale P (2012) Phosphorus supply enhances the response of legumes to elevated CO2 (FACE) in a phosphorus-deficient vertisol. Plant Soil 358:91–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kirschbaum MUF (2011) Does enhanced photosynthesis enhance growth? Lessons learned from CO2 enrichment studies. Plant Physiol 155:117–124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kisters K, Groeber U (2013) Magnesium in health and disease. Plant Soil 368:155–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kobayashi NI, Saito T, Iwata N, Ohmae Y, Iwata R, Tanoi K, Nakanishi TM (2013) Leaf senescence in rice due to magnesium deficiency mediated defect in transpiration rate before sugar accumulation and chlorosis. Physiol Plant 148:490–501CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Korner C, Pelaezriedl S, Vanbel AJE (1995) CO2 Responsiveness of plants - a possible link to phloem loading. Plant Cell Environ 18:595–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Laing W, Greer D, Sun O, Beets P, Lowe A, Payn T (2000) Physiological impacts of Mg deficiency in Pinus radiata: growth and photosynthesis. New Phytol 146:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Long SP, Ainsworth EA, Rogers A, Ort DR (2004) Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide: plants FACE the future. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:591–628CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. McGrath JM, Lobell DB (2013) Reduction of transpiration and altered nutrient allocation contribute to nutrient decline of crops grown in elevated CO2 concentrations. Plant Cell Environ 36:697–705CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Mengutay M, Ceylan Y, Kutman UB, Cakmak I (2013) Adequate magnesium nutrition mitigates adverse effects of heat stress on maize and wheat. Plant Soil 368:57–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moore BD, Cheng SH, Sims D, Seemann JR (1999) The biochemical and molecular basis for photosynthetic acclimation to elevated atmospheric CO2. Plant Cell Environ 22:567–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pilbeam DJ (2015) Breeding crops for improved mineral nutrition under climate change conditions. J Exp Bot 66:3511–3521CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Poorter H, Pérez-Soba M (2001) The growth response of plants to elevated CO2 under non-optimal environmental conditions. Oecologia 129:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Reuter DJ, Robinson JB (1997) Plant analysis: An interpretation manual, 2nd edn. CSIRO Publishing, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  36. Rogers HH, Runion GB, Krupa SV (1994) Plant-responses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment with emphasis on roots and the rhizosphere. Environ Pollut 83:155–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Schneider CA, Rasband WS, Eliceiri KW (2012) NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. Nat Methods 9:671–675Google Scholar
  38. Senbayram M, Gransee A, Wahle V, Thiel H (2015) Role of magnesium fertilizers in agriculture: plant-soil continuum. Crop & Pasture Sci 66:1219–1229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shaul O (2002) Magnesium transport and function in plants: the tip of the iceberg. Biometals 15:309–323CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Stitt M (1991) Rising CO2 levels and their potential significance for carbon flow in photosynthetic cells. Plant Cell Environ 14:741–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Terry N, Ulrich A (1974) Effects of magnesium deficiency on photosynthesis and respiration of leaves of sugar beet. Plant Physiol 54:379–381CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Verbruggen N, Hermans C (2013) Physiological and molecular responses to magnesium nutritional imbalance in plants. Plant Soil 368:87–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Walworth JL, Ceccotti S (1990) A reexamination of optimum foliar magnesium levels in corn. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 21:1457–1473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang XZ, Taub DR (2010) Interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide and environmental stresses on root mass fraction in plants: a meta-analytical synthesis using pairwise techniques. Oecologia 163:1–11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Williams L, Hall JL (1987) ATPase and proton pumping activities in cotyledons and other phloem-containing tissues of Ricinus communis. J Exp Bot 38:185–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wong SC (1990) Elevated atmospheric partial-pressure of CO2 and plant-growth. 2. Nonstructural carbohydrate content in cotton plants and its effect on growth-parameters. Photosynth Res 23:171–180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Yang GH, Yang LT, Jiang HX, Li Y, Wang P, Chen LS (2012) Physiological impacts of magnesium-deficiency in Citrus seedlings: photosynthesis, antioxidant system and carbohydrates. Trees-Struct Funct 26:1237–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yemm EW, Willis AJ (1954) The estimation of carbohydrates in plant extracts by anthrone. Biochem J 57:508–514CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering and Natural SciencesSabanci UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations